Not heard but is visibly detected-dental mirror or reflector
Not perceptually disruptive to speech
Diagnostically significant because it may be an indicator of incipient VP inadequacy or airflow through an oronasal fistula?
Nasal turbulence is more of a "snorting" sound
has been referred to as(posterior nasal frication, nasal snort, nasal rustle)
Has bee associated with small VP gaps, implicating the VP port as the source of turbulence?
Audible NE with or without turbulence is NE that accompanies?
is co-produced with any or all HPCs of a language
Obligatory NE may result from?
Obligatory NE requires physical management?
Learned NE can be realized in different forms: (2)?
Nasal fricative substitution with or without turbulence
NE that is co-produced with the target, with or without turbulence
Learned NE: two error patterns you are likely to encounter in clinical practice are:?
Persisting post-operative nasal emission
Perceptually it can be realized as a nasal fricative:
audible turbulence; place of production is velopharyngeal ?
posterior nasal fricative
no audible turbulence; place of production is nasal cavity?
PSNE not associated with ? (occasional assimilation nasality)?
PSNE has a notable occurrence in?
non-cleft individuals with normal VP closure ability
PSNE: clinicians unfamiliar with this pattern often misdiagnose the problem as?
NE that persists that repaired CP speakers who have the physiologic ability to attain closure?
Persisting post-operative NE
Persisting post-op NE speakers continue?
the old pattern of directing air into the nasal cavity
Persiting post-op NE is not restricted to ?
any certain sounds, sound groups
Persisitng post-op NE perceptually realized as?
co-produced NE or as a nasal fricative
Weak pressure consonants are the result of?
Reduced oral pressures
Weak pressure consonats are due to?
abnormal coupling of oral and nasal cavities
Weak pressure consonants reduces or eliminates ?
Weak pressure consonants usually ___ and requires ___?
Weak pressure consonants in most severe form this will result in?
nasal consonant substitutions for the class of oral stops: /p,b,t,d,k,g/
Combined impact of HN, NAE, and weak pressure consonants?
In VP insufficiency
with an oronasal fistula
In VP incompetency
In VP mislearning
*Learned articulatory deviations
*Substitution errors in place of articulation
*Predominantly backed articulatory placements-(post-uvular placements)
*Persist after successful physical management
*Coexist with physiologically adequate closure mechanism