What is the primary function of the respiratory system?
Gas exchange, host defense, metabolic organs, transports o2, acquire o2, removes co2
attached to outer surgace of the lung
lines the inside of the thoracic cavity, aheres to chest wall and diaphragm
region in the middle of the chest
what are the four functions of respiration
- Pulmonary ventilation
- diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
- transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
- regulation of ventilation
- begins with the diaphram. the diaphram flattens and descends
- the external intercostal muscles raise the ribs and sternum up and outward. the increase size of the thoracic cavity results in decreased pressure in the pleural cavity.
cardianal signs of respiratory disease
- chest pain
what is the preferred route of air into the lungs
characteristics of COPD
- causes irreversile and progressive damage to the lungs which could lead to respiratory failure secondary to severe hypoxia.
- FYI in amny patients COPD leads to right sided heart failure secondary to COPD
Most common chronic dease of childhood
characteristics of asthma
- airway obstruction that is reversible
- airway inflammation
- increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimuli
three categories of asthama
signs and symptoms of asthma
- marked dyspnea
- tight feeling in chest
- agitation as airway obstruction increases
- patient unable to talk
- tachy cardia
- respiratory alkalosis because of hyperventilation
- hypoventilation leads to increasing hyposemia and respiratory acidosis.
non allergic (intrinsic) asthma
precipitated by excercise, and exposure to pulmonary irritants, but no specific allergen can be id'ed, aspirin
allergic extrinsic asthma
response to specific antigens. causes a release of inflammatory chemicals in response to antigen.
what is chronic bronchitis
acute inflammation of the trachea and bronchi
characteristics of indiv with bronchitis
- cigarette smoking
- living in an urban or industrial area
- heavy exposure to inhaled irritants.
- in some cases asthma is associated
- (90% of case is due to cigarette smoking)
what occurs in chronic bronchitis
- inflammation and obstruction, repeated infections, chronic cough
- inflamed mucosa
- hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous glands
- increased secretion
- increased goblet cells (produces mucin which dissolves in water to form mucus)
- decreased ciliated epithelium
- during episodes of coughing cyanosis may be seen
- (effects irreversible and progressive)
signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis
- blue bloater with edema from right side heart failure
- chronic cough with sputum for minimum 3 months per year for at least 2 years.
- productive or unproductive cough
- typical patient overweight man or woman in their 30's or 40's
- cyanosis is a late symptom
- dyspnea, fatigue,
- hypoxia leads to pulmonary hypertension
- destructive changes of the alveolar walls without fibrosis (formation of excess gibrin in tissue)
- develops over a long period of time. usually associated with chronic bronchitis
- usually found in a thin man or woman in his or her middle 50's who has had increaing shortness of breath for the past 3-4 years.
contributing factors to emphysema
- cigarrette smoking for the past 70 years.
- air pollution
- certain occupations
two ways smoking lead to alveoli damage
- it leads to inflammation of the lung
- it inactivates anitrypsin which normally protects the lung
main symptoms of emphysema
- dypnea on exertion, hyperventilation
- barrel chest,
- sitting position leaning forward
- pursed lip breathing
- anorexia and fatique
- digital clubbing
Chronic bronchitis is diagnosed base on what
clinical symtoms -cough with sputum for minimum 3 months in 1 year fo 2 years.
emphysema is diagnosed based on
- pathologic anatomy, dilation and destruction of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole the alveolar ducts and laveolar walls.
- ct scan is the tool used to diagnosed