1. why do we need a respiratory system?
    to extract nutrients out of food and gases out of the atmosphere
  2. how long could we survive without oxygen?
    3-5 mins
  3. what would happen if carbon dioxide is allowed to build up
    decreases the blood PH i.e. it becomes more acidic
  4. name 4 functions of the respiratory system
    • 1) exchange gases
    • 2) olfaction (smell)
    • 3) voice production
    • 4) protection against micro orgainisms
  5. name 4 features of respiratory mucosa
    • 1) traps matter in sticky mucous
    • 2) humidifies the incoming air
    • 3) equates incoming air to body temp
    • 4) cillia on its surface moves mucous
  6. name 4 features of the respiratory membrane
    • 1) it's function is to allow gas exchange
    • 2) very thin (0.5 um)
    • 3) very flat cells
    • 4) no cillia
  7. nme the components of the upper respiratory tract
    • 1) nasal cavity
    • 2) pharynx
    • 3) associated structures
  8. name the components of the lower respiratory tract
    • 1) larynx
    • 2) trachea
    • 3) bronchi
    • 4) lungs
  9. what are the nares
  10. what is the nasal cavity proper lined with
    respirtory mucosa
  11. describe the nasal septum
    partition diving nasal cavity at midline. anterior is cartilage, posterior is bone.
  12. name the yellow structure
    Image Upload 1
    nasal septum
  13. desbribe the choncae
    lateral walls with 3 bony shelves (superior, middle and inferior choncae)
  14. name this structure
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    nasal chonchae
  15. what are the meatuses
    the spaces underneath the superior, middle and inferior chonchae
  16. what is olfactory mucosa
    specialised mucosa involved with olfaction
  17. name the associated structures of the nasal cavity
    • 1) frontal sinus
    • 2) maxillary sinus
    • 3) sphenoid sinus
    • 4) ethmoid sinus
  18. identify and locate these associated structures

    Image Upload 3
    • from top to bottom:
    • frontal sinus
    • ethmoid sinus
    • maxilllary sinus
    • sphenoid sinus ( located medial and inferior to the posterior ethmoid air cells.)
  19. what are sinuses
    cavities found in bones surrounding the nasal cavity, the drain into the nasal cavity
  20. where does the pharynx run
    from choncae to larynx
  21. what is the function of the pharynx
    common pathway for air and food
  22. name the 3 regions of the larynx
    • naso
    • oro
    • laryngo
  23. what is the structure of the larynx
    9 catilages (8 hyaline and 1 elastic) draped with respiratory mucosa
  24. name 5 functions of the larynx
    • 1) maintains a patent airway
    • 2) mucosa aid in trapping particulate matter
    • 3) directs the passage of food and air
    • 4) epiglotis
    • 5) houses the vocal chords
  25. where is the trachea located
    below larynx
  26. describe the trachea
    12cm tube from inferior larynx to it's division in the primary barnch at carina. found anterior to the esophagus
  27. name 4 features relating to the structure of the trachea
    • 1) lined with respiratory mucosa
    • 2) has 16-20 C shaped cartilages
    • 3) cartilage joined by fiberous tissue
    • 4) cartilage keeps the lumen open during breathing
  28. identify and locate these structures:

    Image Upload 4
    • from top to bottom
    • nasal cavity
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
  29. where is the tracheobronchial tree located?
    at the carina of the trachea, the trachea successively divides into smaller trees
  30. descrbie the structure of the right secondary branch of the tracheobronchial tree
  31. how many on the left secondary branch of the tracheobronchial tree
  32. describe the teritary branch of the trachebronchial tree
    will continue to divide until the lumen is less than 1mm wide
  33. what happens as the tubes in the trachebronchial tree get smaller
    they increase in number, amount of cartilage in the wall decreases and the amount of smooth muscle increases
  34. name 3 features of the bronchioles
    • 1) last part of the tracheobronchial tree
    • 2) single alveoli on the walls
    • 3) lining starts to become respiratory membrane
  35. describe the area around the lungs
    the lungs fill up the space created on either side by the vetebral column by the curvature of the ribcage
  36. name the 3 common features of both lungs
    • 1) apex
    • 2) base
    • 3) Hilum (on medial surface, where things enter and exit)
  37. name the lobes of the right lung
    • superior lobe
    • middle inferior oblique lobe
    • horizontal lobe
  38. name the lobes of the left lung
    • superior lobe
    • inferior oblique lobe
  39. identify which lung and name the lobes:
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    • right lung
    • superior lobe
    • middle inferior oblique
    • horizontal lobe
  40. identify which lung and name the lobes:
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    • left lung
    • superior lobe
    • inferior oblique lobe
  41. where is the visceral pleura located
    on the external surface of each lung
  42. where is the parietal pluera located
    lines the thoracic wall
  43. name these two structures
    Image Upload 7
    • from top to bottom
    • visceral pleura
    • parietal pleura
Card Set
C#: why do we breathe