Lecture 2 power point

  1. Species
    all organisms of the same kind that are genetically similar enough to breed
  2. Population
    all members of species living in a given area at the same time
  3. Biological communtiy
    all of the populations of organisms living in the same area interacting with each other.

    -all are interdependent

    -all compete
  4. Ecosystem-Biotic
    the biological community, the living community
  5. Ecosystem-Abiotic
    the physical environment, the non-living components
  6. Niche
    organisms become adapted in a way that lessens the energy needed to survive and which increases the success of survival

    -affected by biotic, abiotic, and habitat.
  7. 2 types of niches
    Fundamental and realized
  8. Fundamental niche
    potential ecological niche for an organism

    -does not have it, just potential.
  9. Realized niche
    niche an organism already occupies
  10. Consequences of Limiting resources
    -restricts an organisms niche

    -may lead to competitive exclusion

    -natural selection

    -leads to resource partitioning
  11. Competition
    two or more individuals attmepting to use the same resource
  12. 2 types of competition
    intraspecific and interspecific
  13. (competition) Intraspecific competition
    among individuals within a population
  14. (competition) Interspecific competition
    between different species
  15. Competition exclusion principle
    -two species cannot occupy the same niche in the same community for an indefinte period.

    • -one species is excluded by another as a result of competition
    • ex) extinct or resource partitioning
  16. Effects of competition


    -resource partitioning
  17. Coevolution
    species evolve more efficient ways to interact
  18. Symbiotic relationships


    - parasitism
  19. (symbiotic relationships) Mutualism
    each individual organism benefits from this relationship
  20. (symbiotic relationships) Comensalism
    one organism benefits while the other remains neutral
  21. (symbiotic relationships) Parasitism
    One organism benefits while the other one is harmed
  22. Adaptations that allow a species to defend against predation
    - camouflage

    -poisons or toxins

    -warning coloration


    -mechanical defenses( claws, sharp teeth)

    -associating in groups (herding)
  23. Keynote species
    present in small numbers but are crucial in determining teh species composition and ecosystem functioning
  24. Dominant species
    affect the community because they are so common
  25. Primary succession
    occurs in an area not previously inhabited

    -starts with rocks present only
  26. Secondary succession
    -occurs where there is a pre-existing community and well-formed soil

    -most common after a forest fire.
  27. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis
    -species richness is greatest at moderate levels of disturbance
  28. Primary productivity
    photosynthesis, because is it the basis for almost all other growth in an ecosystem.
  29. Secondary productivity
    manufactured of biomass by organisms eating plants...
  30. Food chains...
    -aquatic chains tend to be longer

    -food webs tend to be simpler in more harsh environments
  31. Trophic level
    expression of an organisms feeding status in an ecosystem
  32. Facts on energy pyramid
    -smaller organisms are eaten by larger ones

    - takes many organisms to feed one large organism
Card Set
Lecture 2 power point
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