1. Research
    The formal, systematic application of the scientific method to the study of problems.

    Major func: test hypotheses derived from an existing theory
  2. Empirical approach
    • knowledge based on on observation
    • (they can be misleading & are often misinterpreted).
  3. Hypothesis (research hypothesis)
    a statement indicating what results are expected

    prediction of the outcome of a study
  4. Experimental research
    treatments are given for the research purpose: causes and effect, observe change in bx
  5. Nonexperimental research
    observe participants in order to describe them as they naturally exist (survey, poll)
  6. Experimental group
    receives the treatment
  7. Control group
    not exposed to conditions
  8. Demographics
    backgroud characteristics: socioeconomic status, age, race, etc.
  9. Causal-comparative study (ex post facto study)
    Researchers observe a current condition and look to the past to try to explain the cause.
  10. Survey/Poll (purpose)
    Describe the attiudes, beliefs, and bx of a population.
  11. Census
    a count (or study) of all members of a population
  12. Case study
    Usually involves only one participant.
  13. Logitudinal research
    Study over a long period of time
  14. Correlational research
    Research the degree of relationship among two or more quantitative variables.
  15. Quantitative research
    Numbers. Data can be quantified, allowing for statistical analysis.

    Deductive approach to planning - use literature as bases for planning research

    Select random sample

    Generalize the results to one or more populations
  16. Qualitative research
    Formed judgment to identify major and minor themes expressed by participants. (Semi-structured interviews.)

    Inductive approach to planning - deemphasize literature for planning research

    Purposive sample

    Summarize result by citing individuals' response

    Limit conclusions to only the indiv who were directly studied
  17. Variable
    a trait or characteristic with two or more categories
  18. Mutually exclusive categories
    Each respondent will belong to only one category.
  19. Exhaustive
    A variable must have a category for each respondent opinion
  20. Independent variable
    stimulus or input / predictor
  21. Dependent variable
    response or output / criterion
  22. Research question
    May be substituted for a nondirectional hypothesis.
  23. Operationalizing a variable
    Redefine a variable in terms of physical steps

    (creates operatonal definition)
  24. Program evaluation
    Evaluation research

    Applied research
  25. Needs assessment
    nonexperimental research to firgure out what are the practical needs of served by the program
  26. Sythesis
    provide a whole picture of what is and is not known, as well as atempt to show how diverse pieces of information fit together and make sense
  27. Sample population
    group in which researchers are ultimately interested
  28. Unbiased sample
    Give every member of an population an equal chance to be part of the sample

    may use simple random sample
  29. Bais sample

    may use sample of convenience/accidental

    Volunteerism - call for, may not participate
  30. Simple random sample
    Every member of a population is given an equal chance of being included in a sample.

    (drawing names from a hat)
  31. Sampling errors
    Errors created by random sampling

    (disporportionality of gender, etc.)
  32. Systematic sampling
    (very similar to simple random sampling)

    Every nth individual is selected.
  33. Precision
    Technical term for discussing the magnitude of sampling errors.
  34. Stratified random sampling
    To use stratification in conjunction with random sampling.
  35. Cluster sampling
    Researchers draw random groups (clusters) of participants instead of drawing individuals.
  36. Proposive sampling
    Researchers puposively select individuals who they believe will be good sources of information.
  37. Snowball sampling
    Useful when attempting to locate participants who are hard to find.
  38. Mortality
    participants drop out of experiements

    special type of sampling bias results in experiments
  39. Pilot study
    Studies designed to obtain preliminary information on how new treatments and instruments work.
  40. Instrument
    Any type of measurement device (e.g. test, questionnaire, interview schedule, or personality scale).
  41. Validity of instruments
    An instrument is valid when it measure what it is deigned to measure and accurately performs the function(s) it is purported to perform.
Card Set
Educational Research