1. The term behavior refers to any activity of an organism that can be o_______ or somehow m________, whereas the term learning refers to a relatively p________ change in what an orgainsm does as a result of some type of ex________.
    • observed
    • measured
    • permanent
    • experience
  2. In _______ conditioning, behaviors that the average person typically regards as (voluntary/involuntary) ________ come to be elicited in new situations.
    • classical
    • involuntary
  3. In ______ conditioning, a behavior produces some type of consequence that strengthens or weakens its occurrence. Such behaviors are typically those that the average person perveives as v______ or g_____ directed.
    • operant
    • voluntary
    • goal
  4. Feeling anxious as you enter a dentist's office is an example of a behavior that has most likely been learned through ______ conditioning.
  5. Speaking with a loud voice in a noisy environment so that others will be able to hear you is an example of a behavior that has most likely been acquired through ________ conditioning.
  6. According to the notational system to be used in this text, the term "A: B" means that event A (produces/is followed by) _________ event B, and the term "X ---->Y" means that event X (produces/is followed by) ________ event Y.
    • followed by
    • produces
  7. Watson noted that a major problem with the method of _____ was that the results obtained were often unreliable.
  8. A basic problem with relying on someone's report about his/her thoughts and feelings is that we are making a(n) ______ that the report is accurate. This term is defined in the footnotw as a supposition/guess based on logical d______ rather than direct o_______.
    • Inference
    • Deduction
    • Observation
  9. The notion that the proper subject matter of psychology should be the study of consciousness was so strong that even those who studied _______ behavior felt compelled to make inferences about possible mental processes in their subjects.
  10. Watson argued that psychology needed to become a n_____ science based solely on the study of ob______ events.
    • Natural
    • Observable
  11. According to the law of p________, the (simpler/more complex) __________ explanation is generally the preferable explanation.
    • parsimony
    • Simpler
  12. One version of the above law, known as __________ _________, holds that it is preferable to interpret animal behavior in terms of lower, more primitive processes, such as reflex or habit, than higher, more mentalistic processes, such as reasoning.
    Morgan's canon
  13. Watson's brand of behaviorism is often referred to as _______ behaviorism.
  14. According to this type of behaviorism, psychologists should study only those behaviors that can be ________ _________.
    Directly observed
  15. Watson believed that all reference to ________ events should be eliminated from the study of behavior.
  16. Watson's brand of behaviorism is a(n) _____-______ theory in that it hypothesizes that learning involves the formation of a direct connection between a st_____ and a r______.
    • S-R
    • stimulus
    • response
  17. In his 1913 article on behaviorism, Watson emphasized the role of both h_______ and e_______ in the development of human behavior. In his later theorizing, however, he downplayed the role of ______.
    • Heredity
    • Environment
    • heredity
  18. In his later theorizing, Watson proposed that humans inherit (many/a few) ______ basic reflexes, along with 3 basic emotions: _______, _______, and _________.
    • A few
    • Love
    • Rage
    • Fear
  19. Bandura's ________ _______ theory emphasizes the importance of o_______ learning and c______ variables.
    • Social Learning
    • observational
    • cognitive
  20. The concept of _____ _____ proposes that 3 variables: e________, b_______, and p______ variables, all ineract with each other.
    • reciprocal determinism
    • environmental events
    • observable behavior
    • person
  21. Bandura's work has influenced the development of a type of therapy known as _______-_______ therapy, in which an attempt is made to change behavior by altering both environmental and c_______ factors.
    • cognitive-behavior therapy
    • cognitive
  22. Skinner's ______ behaviorism views both internal and external behaviors as resulting from e________ influences.
    • Radical
    • environmental
  23. Skinner view thoughts & feelings as pr______ behaviors that themselves need to be explained.
  24. In teaching children to label their thoughts and feelings, parents first have to make inf_____ about what the child is feeling.
  25. In determining the relationship of thoughts & feelings to behavior, it is sometimes difficult to know if the internal event pr____, f______, or occurs pa_____ to the behavior.
    • precedes
    • follows
    • parallel
  26. Yet another issue with respect to using internal events to explain behavior is that we (can/cannot) ______ directly change such events.
  27. Saying that you are feeling "happy" to explain why you are always smiling and laughing is, from Skinner's perspective, an example of using feelings as a ps_____explanation for your behavior.
  28. Altering the environment so as to control our own behavior is referred to as c_______. However, even this type of behavior is ultimately the result of some type of e_____ influence.
    • countercontrol
    • environmental
  29. Skinner is most similar to (Hull/Watson/Tolman) ______ in arguing that behavior is best viewed from a m____ perspective.
    • Tolman
    • molar
  30. For Skinner, an S-R interpretation can best be applied to behavior that is r______and can be _______ conditioned. It cannot be applied to______ behavior that is under the control of its c______ and has a more fl______ quality about it.
    • reflexive
    • classically
    • operant
    • consequences
    • flexible
  31. The Tolmanian rat runts through the maze because it e______ that doing so will result in food; the Skinnerian rat runs through the maze because, in its p____ experience, doing so resulted in food.
    • expects
    • past
  32. Although he emphasized the role of the environment, Skinner also believed that behavior was fundamentally the result of the interaction of g_____ and the environment. He was in fact quite interested in evidence indicating g_____ limitations on ________ conditioning.
    • genes
    • genetic
    • operant
  33. Skinner believed that the processes of e______ and operant conditioning were quite similar in that both involved selecting what was beneficial from what was not beneficial.
  34. On a practical level, Skinner believed that genetic explanations for behavior tend to be (optimistic/pessimistic) ________ about the possibility of change.
  35. Skinner's philosophy of behaviorism (meaning the set of basic assumptions for how best to conduct a science of behavior) is called ______ behaviorism.
  36. The science that grew out of Skinner's philosophy is called the e_____ a_____ of behavior or, more briefly, ______ ______.
    • experimental analysis
    • behavior analysis
  37. The technology that has grown out of that science is known as _______.
    applied behavior analysis
  38. applied behavior analysis
    A technology of behavior in which basic principles of behavior are applied to real-world issues.
  39. behavior
    Any activity of an organism that can be observed or somehow measured.
  40. Behavior analysis (or experimental analysis of behavior)
    The behavioral science that grew out of Skinner's philosophy of radical behaviorism.
  41. Behaviorism
    A natural science approach to psychology that traditionally focuses on the study of environmental influences on observable behavior.
  42. cognitive behaviorism
    A brand of behaviorism that utilizes intervening variables, usually in the form of hypothesized cognitive processes, to help explain behavior. Sometimes called "purposive behaviorism."
  43. Countercontrol
    The deliberate manipulation of environmental events to alter their impact on our behavior.
  44. Empiricism
    In psychology, the assumption that behavior patterns are mostly learned rather than inherited. Also known as the nurture perspective.
  45. Evolutionary adaptation
    An inherited trait (physical or behavioral) that has been shaped through natural selection.
  46. Functionalism
    An approach to psychology holding that the mind evolved to help us adapt to the world around us, and that the focus of psychology should be the study of those adaptive processes.
  47. Introspection
    The attempt to accurately describe one's conscious thoughts, emotions, and sensory experiences.
  48. Latent learning
    Learning that occurs in the absence of any observable demonstration of learning and only becomes apparent under a different set of conditions.
  49. Law of contiguity
    A law of association holding that events that occur in close proximity to each other in time or space are readily associated with each other.
  50. Law of contrast
    A law of association holding that events that are opposite from each other are readily associated.
  51. Law of frequency
    A law of association holding that the more frequently 2 items occur together, the more strongly they are associated.
  52. Law of parsimony
    The assumption that simpler explanations for a phenomenon are generally preferable to more complex explanations.
  53. Law of Similarity
    A law of association holding that events that are similar to each other are readily associated.
  54. Methodological behaviorism
    A brand of behaviorism asserting that, for methodological reasons, psychologists should study only those behaviors that can be directly observed.
  55. Nativism
    The assumption that a person's characteristics are largely inborn. Also known as the nature perspective.
  56. Radical Behaviorism
    A brand of behaviorsim that emphasizes the influence of the environment on overt behavior, rejects the use of internal events to explain behavior, and views thoughts and feelings as behaviors that themselves need to be explained.
  57. Reciprocal determinism
    The assumption that environmental events, observable behavior, and "person variables" (including internal events) reciprocally influence each other.
  58. Social learning theory
    A brand of behaviorism that strongly emphasizes the importance of observational learning and cognitive variables in explaining human behavior. It has more recently been referred to as "social-cognitive theory."
  59. S-R theory
    The theory that learning involves the establishment of a connection between a specific stimuls (S) and a specific response (R).
Card Set
Exam 1