CDO 335

  1. What are the three siliva glands?
    • Partid Gland
    • Sublingual Gland
    • Submandibular Gland
  2. What does saliva contain?
  3. What does Ptyalin do?
    Helps break down food
  4. Mastication
    Chewing of food and preparing food for swallowing
  5. Concha
    • Limed with muccous membranes
    • Warms, humidifies, filters, and detoxifies the air
  6. Rooting Reflex
    Induced By
    Lightly stroking the lips or cheeks on one side of the neonate or infant
  7. Rooting Reflex
    the mouth to open and the head to turn towards the stimulus
  8. Sucking Reflex
    • Induced by: Light contact with the inner margin of the lips.
    • Cause: Lips seal and protrude; tongue retracts
  9. Uvular (Palatal) Reflex
    • Induced By: Irritation (tactile, pain, or thermal stimulus to the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue) of the general visceral afferent (GVA) branch of the IX Cranial Nerve (Glossopharyngeal)
    • Cause: Uvular Elevation and retraction
  10. Gag Reflex
    • Induced By: Tactile (light or deep touch) stimulation of the faucial arches, posterior tongue, or posterior pharyngeal wall.
    • Cause: Velum and pharynx elevate. May be elicited by taste.
    • Involves the IX and X Cranial Nerve
  11. Retch Reflex
    Dry Vomit/Heaving
    • Induced By: Noxious odors, tasts, gastrointestinal discomfort and vestibular dysfunction.
    • Cause: Involuntary attempt to vomit
  12. Vomit Reflex
    • Induced By: Noxious odors, tasts, gastrointestinal discomfort, and vestibular dysfunction.
    • Cause: Vocal folds adduct, abdominal muscles contract violently, the UES and LES relax, the larynx, velu, and pharynx elevate, the epiglottis closes over the aditus laryngis, and the tongue protrudes.
  13. Cough Reflex
    • Induced By: Noxious stimulition of the pharynx, larynx, trachea, or bronchi.
    • Cause: The true and false vocal folds adduct and the abdominal muscles contract building up subglottal pressure for forced exhalation.
    • Involves the GVA branch of the X Vagus Nerve.
    • Designed to protect the airway and lower respiratory tract.
    • Food, liquid, or mucous has gotten into the trachea.
  14. Tongue Base Retraction Reflex
    • Induced By: Pulling the tongue forward
    • Cause: The muscle spindles of the genioglossus muscle
  15. Posterior Tonge Elevation Reflex
    • Induced By: Pushing down on the posterior tongue.
    • Cause: Stimulates the muscle spindles of hte palatoglossus muscle and results in elevation of the posterior tongue.
  16. Pain Withdrawal Reflex
    • Induced By: A painful area (lesion) inside the mouth, or as a response to very hot or spicy foods.
    • Cause: Expectorate (spit) or swallow
  17. Respiration Reflex
    Is reflexive, but can become voluntary. Mediated by the IX Cranial Nerve, which helps regulate the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body.
  18. Why is excessive coughing bad?
    B/c it blasts the vocal folds open and can be abusive
  19. Hyperkinetic Voice Disorder
    • Includes: Vocal Nodules, Polyps, and Contract Ulcers.
    • Misuse and Abuse
  20. What happens to singers?
    They lose their high notes and their voice may change with vocal nodules.
  21. Most suseptalbe of Vocal Nodules
    Women and children
  22. Most suseptable of contact ulcers
    adult males
  23. Broad based Polyps
    Sessile Polyps
  24. Stem/Stalk Polyps
    Pedunculated Polyps
  25. 2 Kinds of Polyps
    Sessile Polyps and Pedunculated Polyps
  26. Nodules = unilateral or bilateral?
    Nodules are usually bilateral
  27. Polyps = unilateral or bilateral?
    Polyps are usually unilateral
  28. What is less suseptalbe to voice treatment?
    Polyps. Surgery might be necessary.
  29. What personality is more suseptable to develope Vocal nodules, polyps, or contract ulcers?
  30. Nodal Region
    Bridge of sucretion between one vocal fold and another
  31. Movement of polyps is caused by what?
    Subglottal pressure tends to push polyps up and above the vocal folds, then drops below or between the vocal folds during inhalation.
  32. Orafice/Ostium
    Entrance to the Eustation Tube
  33. Salpingopharyngeus Muscle
    • Opens/closes the Eustachian tube.
    • Is "U-Shaped" and encircles the Eustachian Tube.
  34. Torus Tubarius
    • "Cushion of the tube"
    • The Area surrounding the Ostium or Eustachian tube.
  35. Adnoids AKA?
    Pharyngeal tonsils
  36. Adnoids/Pharyngeal Tonsils
    Become larger as we get older, then begin to shrink again as we reach puberty.
  37. Velopharyngeal Closure
    Soft palate meeting the posterior laryngeal wall. Creates a closure and prevents food/drink from entering the nasal cavity.
  38. Palatine tonsils AKA?
    The normal tonsils
  39. Palatine Tonsils
    Located between the anterior and posterior faucial pillars
  40. Anterior Faucial Pillar
  41. Posterior Faucial Pillars
  42. Cecum
    Hidden Foraman
  43. Vellecula
    Hole or pocket. Important landmark with patients with dysphagia. Formed by the back of the tongue and the epiglottis.
  44. 3 Parts of the Pharynx
    Nasopharynx, Oralpharynx, and the laryngealpharynx
  45. Cricoid Cartilage
    Gets wider posterialy. Like a sigment ring. Forms a complete circle. Sits above the trachea.
  46. Throid Carilage
    • Largest cartilage.
    • Forms protection to the true and false vocal folds
  47. False Vocal Folds
    Ventricular folds
  48. What is the difference between a child and adult larynx?
    In a child, the oral cavity is smaller, the larynx is elevated, which makes it higher in the neck. It lowers in the first 4 years of life. This allows the velum to lock into the valleculie during swallowing.
  49. Glottis
    The variable space between the true vocal folds
  50. Digastric Muscle
    Has two bellies. The anterior and Posterior belly. Only the anterior belly depresses the mandible.
  51. Thyrohyoid Muscle
    Elevates the thyroid Cartilage and Depresses the hyoid bone
  52. Passavant's Ridge (Pad)
    Helps with velopharyngeal closure. Posterior wall comes forward and meets with the velum.
  53. Pars Vocalis
    Membranous.Contributes to phonation. Vocal Part. Anterior 2/3rds.
  54. Pars Respiratus
    Cartilagenous. Contributes to breathing. Breathing part. Posterior 1/3rds
  55. Reflexes
    Found mainly in or around the oral cavity and help newborn babies thrive and survive.
  56. Control of Reflexes
    Gradually, through normal development, a child will gain voluntary control over reflexes. Cerebralpalsy children have a hard time gaining control over their reflexes.
  57. Larygneal Prominence
    Adams Apple.
  58. Ways we use our larynx
    Protection from aspiration. Phonation. Articulation. Swallowing. Coughing. Lifting. Pulling. Pushing. Bearing down. Child birth. Vomiting. Retching. Clearing the throat. Respiration. Yawning. Laughing. Resonating. Whispering. Hiccuping. Sneezing. Gaging.
  59. How does the Larynx provide protection from aspiration?
    The Epiglottis closes over the aditus laryngeous and the true and false vocal folds tightly close.
  60. Locking the Larynx AKA?
    Abdominal Fixation
  61. Corniculate and Cuneiform Tubercles
    Cover the Corniculate and Cuneiform Cartilages.
  62. 3 Arytenoid Muscles
    • Oblique arytenoid muscles
    • Transverse arytenoid muscles (2X)
  63. 2 Parts of the Cricothyroid Muslce
    Pars Recta and Pars Oblique
  64. Cricothyroid muscle
    Regulates pitch by creating longitudinal tension. The vocal folds become longer, and this elevates the pitch.
  65. Thyroid articular surface
    • Concae
    • (Lateral concae thyroid vacet)
  66. Lateral Cricoarytenoid Muscle
    Antagonist to the Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscle. Adductor of anterior 2/3rds of the vocal folds, (the pars vocalis, membranous part.)
  67. 2 Pairs of the Thyroarytenoid Muscle
    • Thyrovocalis(vocalis m.)
    • Thyromuscularis muscle
  68. Thyrovocalis Muscle (Vocalis M.)
    • Comprise the true vocal folds
    • Medial to the Muscularis Muscle
  69. Conus Elasticus
    • Laryngeal Membrane.
    • Courses up and contributes to the vocal ligament.
    • Superior margin becomes the vocal ligament.
  70. Layers of the vocal Folds
    • Epithelium
    • Superficial Layer of Lamina Propria
    • Intermediate Layer of Lamina Propria
    • Deep Layer of Lamina Propria
    • Thyroarytenoid M.
  71. Cover of the True Vocal Folds = Mucous membrane or Mucosa
    • Epithelium
    • Superficial Layer of Lamina Propria
  72. Vocal Ligament = transition of the vocal folds
    • Intermediate Layer of Lamina Propria
    • Deep Layer of Lamina Propria
  73. Body
    Thyroarytenoid M. - Thyrovocalis.
  74. Cover Wave or Mucosal Wave
    Wavelike behavior of the true vocal folds during phonation.
  75. Superficial Layer of Lamina Propria AKA
    Reinke's Space
  76. Reinke's Adema
    • Tissue reaction to smoking.
    • Buildup of fluid in mucous membrane
    • Swelling of the vocal folds
    • Gives a "smokers voice" - becomes lower in pitch.
  77. Vocal Ligament - Appearance
    Can be seen through the mucous membrane and gives the vocal folds a 'white' appearance.
  78. Vocal Process
    • Anterior, Medial, and Inferior.
    • Posterior, Lateral, and Superior.
Card Set
CDO 335