MCAT Bio 1

  1. Site of lipid synthesis
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  2. Site of lipid metabolism
  3. Structure of mitochondrion
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  4. Where cilia is exclusively found in humans
    • -Respiratory System (lungs)
    • -Nervous System (ependymal cells)
    • -Reproductive System (fallopian tubes)
  5. Cell cycle
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  6. Where DNA is found
    Nucleus. DNA cannot leave and is only found here. There is however a small amount found in the mitochondria.
  7. Nucleolus
    Site of rRNA transcription and ribosome assembly.
  8. Rough ER
    Covered with ribosomes; all proteins not bound for the cytosol are made here.
  9. Smooth ER
    Lipid synthesis and modification. NOT LIPID METABOLISM.
  10. Golgi Apparatus
    Cellular "post office;" organize, package, modify, excrete, etc.
  11. Mitochondria
    Have their own DNA with variations to the nuclear genetic code passed through the maternal line only.

    Place of lipid metabolism.

    Theory suggests they evolved from aerobic prokaryotes in symbiosis with a eukaryotic cell.
  12. Centrioles/Centrosome
    The centrosome is an amorphous area of proteins and nucleating factors within which the centrioles are located. It organizes microtubules, flagella and cilia; it also plays a key role in cell division.
  13. Lysosome
    • pH of 5
    • Digests cell parts
    • Fuses with phagocytotic vesicles
    • Participates in cell death (apoptosis)
    • Forms by budding off from the Golgi
  14. Peroxisome
    • Self-replicates
    • Detoxifies chemicals
    • Participates in lipid metabolism
  15. Tubulin
    A protein that is the main constituent of microtubules.
  16. Cytoskeleton
    Microscopic network of filaments that give shape to cells.
  17. Spindle Apparatus
    Segregates chromosomes during cell division.
  18. Actin and Myosin
    Filaments in muscle that provide movement.
  19. In humans, cilia are found exclusively in:
    • Respiratory System (lungs)
    • Nervous System (ependymal cells)
    • Reproductive System (fallopian tubes)
  20. Eukaryotic Flagella
    Whipping motion; microtubules made of tubulin.
  21. Prokaryotic Flagella
    Spinning/rotating motion; simple helices made of flagellin.
  22. Tight Junctions
    Water-proof barriers
  23. Gap Junctions
    Tunnels allowing exchange
  24. Desmosomes
    Strongest cellular junction but are not watertight barriers.
  25. Types of membrane transport
    • Diffusion
    • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Active Transport
    • Secondary Active Transport
  26. Phospholipids
    Major component of all cell membranes that form lipid bilayers. Most phospholipids contain a diglyceride.
  27. Integral Protein
    A protein molecule or protein assembly permanently attached in a biological membrane.
  28. Transport Proteins
    Transport substances such as molecules and ions across the membrane, within the cell, or can be involved in vesicular transport.
  29. Cholesterol
    Organic chemical substance classified as a waxy steroid of fat. Essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity.
  30. Receptor Proteins
    Signal-receiving molecules embedded in the cell wall.
  31. Exocytosis
    The release of cellular substances contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and release of the contents to the exterior of the cell.
  32. Endocytosis
    Incorporation of substances into a cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis.
  33. Phagocytosis
    Cell eating
  34. Pinocytosis
    Cell drinking
  35. Tissue types
    • Epithelial
    • Nervous
    • Connective
    • Muscle
  36. Tissue Organization
    Organ systems > Organs > Tissues > Cells
  37. Communication characteristics of the endocrine system
    Slow, general, long-lasting
  38. Communication characteristics of the nervous system
    Fast, specific, short-lived
  39. Communication characteristics of the paracrine system
    Local mediator hormones only
  40. Diploid number
    Having a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome number is doubled. 46 in humans.
  41. Haploid number
    The haploid number is the number of chromosomes in a gamete of an individual. This is distinct from the monoploid number (x), which is the number of unique chromosomes in a single complete set. Gametes (sperm, and ova) are haploid cells.
  42. Mitosis
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  43. Mitosis yields:
    Two genetically identical, diploid daughter cells.
  44. Meiosis
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  45. Meiosis yields:
    Four genetically distinct, haploid daughter cells.
  46. Lipid definition
    Any biomolecule soluble in non-polar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents.
  47. Fatty acid structure
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  48. Triacylglycerol (triglyceride) structure
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  49. Description of basic steroid structure
    All are four-ringed structures.
  50. Definition of amphipathic
    An amphipathic substance is one that is polar at one end of the molecule (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) at the other.
  51. Alanine (amino acid) structure
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  52. Arginine (amino acid) structure
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  53. Asparagine (amino acid) structure
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  54. Aspartic acid (amino acid) structure
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  55. Cysteine (amino acid) structure
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  56. Glutamic acid (amino acid) structure
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  57. Glutamine (amino acid) structure
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  58. Glycine (amino acid) structure
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  59. Histidine (amino acid) structure
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  60. Isoleucine (amino acid) structure
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  61. Leucine (amino acid) structure
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  62. Lysine (amino acid) structure
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  63. Methionine (amino acid) structure
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  64. Phenylalanine (amino acid) structure
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  65. Proline (amino acid) structure
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  66. Serine (amino acid) structure
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  67. Threonine (amino acid) structure
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  68. Tryptophan (amino acid) structure
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  69. Tyrosine (amino acid) structure
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  70. Valine (amino acid) structure
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Card Set
MCAT Bio 1
Bio 1