Causes: essential hypertension - age, race, obesity, and sodium intake, female hormone therapy, nicotine, and caffeine consumption, disease or illness.
Consequences: Stroke, MI, Kidney iscemia
- Medical emergancy - complication of HF
- Symptoms: sever dyspnea, hr above 100 to 120, dysrhythmia - tachycardia, dissiness, palpitations, fatigue, chest pain, loss of consciousness, possible death, productive caugh - pink frothy
- Treatment: oxygen, diuretics, morphine, drugs, limiting activitiy
- localized defiency of blood
- causes: tissue necrosis and gangrene
- Vessel walls become narrowed and the lumen obstructed, leading to loss of blood flow to the extremity.
- Cause - atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart disease, family history, smoking and improper diet
- Signs - intermittent claudication, pain at rest, ischemic changes
- Occulsion: pain, pallor, pulselessness, paralysis, parasthesia
- skin may appear tight and shiny, absence of hair, dark redness (dependent rubor) temp change d )
- incompeent valves allow reflux of blood from the deeep to superficial veins, vessels dialate and become tortous.
- Causes: obesity, family or personal history of atherosclerosis, traua, hypertension, smoking, pregnancy, long periods of bed rest, and standing for long periods.
- Symptoms: dilated, twisted appearing, superficial vessels on the legs. Swelling of the foot and ankle, pain, itching along vericose veins. full heavy feeling while walking, tire easily due to decreased venous return, increased pigment, dryness, scaling, exoraiation
- Treatment: support hose exercises, elevation, weight reduction, avoid constricting clothing.