Of the origin and the insertion of a muscle, which is least moveable?
Does the production, resorption and repair of bone continue in old age?
yes, processes continue throughout life
What does the autonomic nervous system (ANS) control?
Visceral organs-automatic organs
What is the largest peripheral nerve?
- Vagus is the main nerve
- Sciatic nerve is another major nerve located in the rear legs
What is the scapulohumeral joint?
What is the most caudal part of the sternum?
What is the hole in the occipital bone of the cranium where the spinal cord enters the brain?
What covers the articular surface of long bones?
What is another name for the hip joint?
3 functions of bone:
- supports body
- protects internal organ
- produce blood (bone marrow)
origin (re muscle)
- starting point and least moveable part of the muscle
- where muscle attaches to bone
insertion (re muscle)
- where muscle inserts into bone
- this portion of muscle is more moveable than the origin
equine equivalent of rabies
- equine encephalomyelitis
- (causes seizures, ataxia and death)
Axial skeleton includes:
- Spinal column
What is the significance of 7-13-7-3?
- vertebrae in spinal column:
- 7 cervical
- 13 thoracic
- 7 lumbar
- 3 sacral
Appendicular skeleton includes:
What are the parts of the forelimb?
- Olecranon (elbow)
- Humerus (proximal to the olecranon)
- Radius (larger of 2 bones distal to the olecranon)
- Ulna (smaller of """ )
What are the parts of the pelvis?
- acetabulum (hip socket)
What are the parts of the rear leg?
- Tibia (larger)
- Fibulua (smaller)
3 types of joints:
- Fibrous (skull sutures)
- Cartilagenous (growth plates, growing area of bone starts as cartilage)
- Synovial (hinge, pivot and ball&socket)
Where 2 bones meet at a fibrous joint is called...?
what is a digital flexor?
- muscle that flexes the digits
- there are 2 digital flexors
What muscles in the chest that adducts the shoulder?
what do the triceps do?
extend the foreleg by increasing the angle of the elbow
what do the biceps do?
flexes the foreleg by decreasing the angle of the elbow
what is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles?
- Intrinsic: wholly within one area of the body
- Extrinsic: run from one part of the body to another
Which muscles assist in breathing?
Internal and external intercostals
What is the main muscle involved in respiration?
what is the linea alba?
- midline where the incision for a spay is made
- end point for external obliques
What is the difference between sympathetic ANS and parasympathetic ANS?
- Sympathetic is responsible for increasing vital signs when the flight or fight response is triggered
- Parasympathetic regulates the body back to normal by slowing vitals
How is West Nile Virus transmitted?
What is the function of the thalamus?
processes info from sensory organs and sends it to the brain
What is the hypothalamus?
an endocrine gland that produces hormones
What are the functions of the pituitary gland?
- produces hormones
- controls body functions
What are the parts of the brain and the function of each?
- Cerebrum (vol. mvmnt/thought)
- Cerebellum (coordination)
- Brain Stem (maintains life)
- Medulla Oblongata (respiration)
- Midbrain (senses)
The junctions between neurons where neural impulses are xmitted
- conducting toward the center of a specific site of reference
progressing away from the center of a specific point of reference
inflammation of the meninges, as a pathological condition
pertaining to brain and spinal cord
failure of muscular coordination
pertaining to sense of smell
pertaining to sense of touch
pertaining to taste
pertaining to sense of hearing
paralysis of one side of the body
paralysis of hind limb(s) and sometimes the posterior part of body
paralysis of all 4 limbs
periodic, rhythmic, invol movement of both eyeballs in unison
what minerals are commonly stored in bones?
what are the fibrous bands of tissue that connect one bone to another?
what is the common name for the bone at the point of the rear leg where the tibia and fibula meet?
name and describe the muskuloskeletal condition that large breed dogs are prone to:
- hip dysplasia
- the ball and socket joint of the pelvis and femur becomes diseased and does not sit right
name and describe a common disorder affecting older animals:
- joints become inflammed; condition causes lameness and pain increases over time
What is the division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned with body functions under stress?
sympathetic nervous system
What is the type of nerve that carries impulses away from the CNS and toward muscles?
What is the largest portion of the brain that is concerened with thought and memeory?