Chapter 4; Botany

  1. Tissues
    many cells/ multicellular

    -unique structure and functions

    -composed of one or more cell types
  2. 2 general types of tissues
    -simple tissues

    -complex tissues
  3. Simple tissues
    -one cell type

    -ends with -enchyma
  4. Complex tissues
    -various functions

    -2 or more cell types
  5. (Simple) Parenchyma tissues
    -only has parenchyma cells

    -general functions: photosynthesis, storage

    -primary cell wall only

    -has intercellular spaces
  6. Chlorenchyma or Green Parenchyma
    -parenchyma with many chloroplasts

    -found in leaves, stems, etc.
  7. (Simple) Collenchyma
    - only collenchyma cells

    -irregularly thicken primary cell walls

    -no intercellular spaces

    • -additional support/strength in young and growing areas
    • ex) ribs of celery
  8. (Simple) Sclerenchyma
    -dead at maturity ( no protoplasm)

    -thick secondary cell walls (has lignin)

    -support and strength

    -either has fibers or sclerids
  9. (Sclerenchyma) Sclerids
    -also called stone cells

    -shorter, rounded

    ex) "gritty" pears
  10. (Sclerenchyma) Fibers
    -long and skinny

    -occur in bunches (bundles)

    • -lumen is in the center of the cell
    • ex) linen trees
  11. (complex) Epidermis
    -found outside of plant

    -protection from things going in or water getting out.

    - prevents water loss

    -specialized parenchyma and sclerenchyma make up
  12. (epidermal cells) Trichomes
    -hairs or glands

    -various functions (root hairs and stinging hairs)

    -specialized parenchyma cells
  13. (epidermal cells) Guard cells

    -2 together (pair)

    -open and close

    -hole called stomate. Chloroplast on the sides.

    -looks like lips

    -specialiezed charenchyma cells
  14. (complex) Xylem (7)
    -trasnports water and nutrients

    -water conducting tissue

    - dead at maturity (hollow inside)

    - hollow cell (like pipe system)

    -secondary walls

    -also gives support

    -sclerenchyma cells of primary fibers
  15. (xylem) Vessel
    shorter and wider

    -open at ends

    -efficient water conduction
  16. (xylem) Tracheids
    -long and skinny

    -closed at ends

    -less eficient conduction
  17. (complex) Phloem
    -conducts sugars

    -also a pipe system

    ex) makes sap that can be made to maple syrup
  18. (Phloem) Companion cells

    -has nucleus

    -next to sieve tube cells
  19. (phloem) Sieve tube cells
    -long and skinny

    -cytoplasm only

    -ends have holes (sieve plates)
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Chapter 4; Botany
Chapter 4 lecture notes, day 3