01 Introduction to the Old Testament

  1. ta biblia
    "The Books"
  2. Where does the word "Bible" come from?
    Greek words ta biblia, meaning "The Books"
  3. Three divisions of Old Testament according the Jewish tradition
    • the Law
    • the Prophets
    • the Writings.
  4. Definition of Torah
  5. Definition of Nevi'im
  6. Definition of Ketuvim
  7. Other names for the Old Testament
    Hebrew Scriptures or Tanak (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim)
  8. How many books are there in the Old Testament?
    • 5 (the Torah) according to the Sadducees at the time of Jesus
    • 46 according to the Catholic tradition
    • 39 according to Protestant traditions
  9. When and by whom was the first list of books of the Bible made?
    In the late-4th century by local councils.
  10. What was the council that listed, formally and definitively, the books in the Catholic canon?
    Council of Trent in the 16th century
  11. What are the 7 apocryphal or deuterocanonical books according to Protestants?
    Judith, Tobit, Baruch, 1 & 2 Maccabees, Ecclesiasticus (or Sirach), Wisdom
  12. What are the divisions of the Old Testament according to Christians?
    • Pentateuch or Torah
    • Historical Books
    • Wisdom Writings
    • Prophets
  13. Books in the Pentateuch (Torah)
    • Genesis
    • Exodus
    • Leviticus
    • Numbers
    • Deuteronomy
  14. Historical Books
    Deuteronomic History: Joshua, Judges, 1 & 2 Samuel, 1 & 2 Kings

    Chronicler’s History: 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah

    From the Greek Septuagint: Judith, Tobit, Baruch, 1 & 2 Maccabees
  15. Wisdom Writings
    Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes (or Quoheleth), Song of Songs (or Canticle of Canticles)

    From the Greek Septuagint: Ecclesiasticus (or Sirach) and Wisdom
  16. Prophets (Major and Minor)
    • Major Prophets:
    • Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel

    • Minor Prophets:
    • Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
  17. Literary Tools for Old Testament Study
    Textual Criticism (Lower Criticism)

    • Higher Criticism:
    • -Source Criticism (Literary Criticism)
    • -Form Criticism
    • -Tradition History Criticism
    • -Rhetorical Criticism
  18. Textual Criticism (Lower Criticism)
    The science of detecting what is wrong with the text and either looking for a better and more accurate manuscript, or suggesting a better reading by means of trained guesswork. It aims at establishing the "corrected" text - the best and most accurate possible.
  19. What are the challenges of Textual Criticism?
    • o Ancient Hebrew lacked vowels
    • o Complications posted by manuscript transmission – copying by scribes

    § Some lines may be skipped

    § Dittography or “writing twice”

    § Confusion of words that sound alike

    § Sloppy handwriting

    § Running words together or dividing single words

    § Intentional additions or changes
  20. "Categories" of interpretation
    eisegesis – reading into the text what one wishes to see

    exegesis – reading from the text

    Three major “families” of text traditions by the time of Jesus: Babylonian; Palestinian; Egyptian
  21. Masoretes
    “Interpreters” who put vowels into the text, and thus “fixed the words in a definitive form. However, they lived a thousand years or more after the major writing of the Hebrew Scriptures, and many words has changed their meaning and grammatical shape over the centuries. Such later generations simply did not understand the proper meaning of a passage.
  22. “Masoretic Text”
    the standard Hebrew text that resulted from the decisions of early rabbis (1st century AD) who selected one text for each part of the Bible in order to end the confusion of having variety of copies of the Hebrew Old Testament
  23. Ancient translations of the Old Testament
    • Septuagint (Greek): used by New Testament authors and early Christians
    • Peshitta (Syriac)
    • Vulgate (Latin): solidified by St. Jerome
    • Targum (Aramaic): was not a strict translation
  24. What are several literary tools of Higher Criticism?
    • Source Criticism (Literary Criticism)
    • Form Criticism
    • Tradition History Criticism
    • Rhetorical Criticism
  25. Definition of Higher Criticism
    The interpretation of the corrected text. It is the process of getting behind the finished Bible to the older layers of thought.
  26. Source Criticism
    It stresses the earliest literary sources and studies the problem of whether there are written documents behind our present text.
  27. Form Criticism
    It streesses the earliest oral units, sees literary forms as the building blocks of an oral society, and attempts to uncover the setting in life to which each type of story, tradition, or communication belongs.
  28. What are the questions asked by form critics?
    • Who is speaking?
    • Who is the audience?
    • What is being said?
    • Where is it said?
    • What is the purpose?
  29. What are the steps in Form Criticism?
    • 1. Defining the unit. (paragraph, headings)
    • 2. Naming the form used. (genre: lament, letter, saga, etc.)
    • 3. Describing its setting in life. (social context)
    • 4. Identifying its purpose. (function)
  30. Tradition History Criticism (Transmission History)
    It traces the use and reuse of biblical materials from their earliest forms and settings in the life of Israel down through all the stages of being written and rewritten. It also stresses the adaptations and re-workings of the text and pays attention to the role of scribes, wisemen, priests, prophets, and editors in handing down the literary units.
  31. Rhetorical Criticism
    It (1) accents the wholeness and unity of many chapters and books, (2) appreciates the rhetorical effect of devices such as repetition, dramatic force, stylistic beauty, and (3) stresses harmony and value of the finished work.
Card Set
01 Introduction to the Old Testament
Introduction to the Old Testament and the Study Thereof - Van Slyke