6.1-Cartilage: Learning Objectives
1) Explain functions of carilage
2) Describe the function & distribution of hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, & elastic cartilage.
3) Explain both the interstitial & appositional growth of cartilage.
- 1a. Support soft tissue
- 2a. Provides a gliding surface (articulations)
- 3a. Provides formation of most of bones.
*Cartilage begins as a "rough draft" form & later replaced by bone tissue
6.1b-Growth patterns of Cartilage
What are the two ways and their steps?
Interstitial and Appostitial
- 1b. Interstitial Growth steps:
- 1) Chondrocytes in lacunae undergo mitosis
- 2) 2 new cells occupy a single lacuna.
- 3) Separate into individual lacunas
- 4) New matrix has been produced internally.
- Appositional Growth steps:
- 1) Perichondrium cells undergo mitosis
- 2) Differentiate into chondroblasts
- 3) Old chondroblasts produce/secrete new cartilage matrix.
- Chondroblasts become chondrocytes.
- 4) New matrix has been produced peripherally.
6.2 - Bone: learning objectives:
1. Explain the functions of bone.
What is the bones primary component?
Their primary component is CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
C: Deposition of materials in the matrix.
6.2a - Functions of Bone.
Name the four functions of Bone.
- 1) Support & Protection
- 2) Movement
- 3) Hemopoiesis ~ the process of blood cell production.
- 4) Storage ~ more than 90% of the body's reserves of the minterals are stored/released by bone.
Where are blood cells produced?
Produced in the Red Bone Marrow.
6.3 - Classification & Anatomy of Bones: Learning Objectives:
1) Identify the characteristics of long, short, flat, and irregular bones.
2) Describe the gross anatomy of the long bone.
3) Compare the microscopic anatomy of compact bone & spongy bone.
What are the four classes of bone?
- 1) Long bones ~ (most common shape) have a greater length than width.
- 2) Short bones ~ have a length nearly equal to their width. Interior is spongy bone.
- 3) Flat bones ~ flat, thin surfaces.
- 4) Irregular bones ~ elaborate, complex shape (hip bone).
6.3a. General Structure & Gross Anatomy of LONG BONE.
Diaphysis (principal gross feature)
- Diaphysis ~ (aka shaft) provides leverage & major weight support.
- Epiphysis ~ Knobby region @ the end of long bone; tendone & ligament attachment.
- Metaphysis: in a mature bone between the diaphysis & the epiphysis.
What is "articular cartilage of the long bone help do?
Helps to reduce friction & absorb shock in joints.
Define the "medullar cavitiy." (marrow cavitiy)
It contains yellow bone marrow within the diaphysis.
What is the "endosteum" of the long bone?
incomplete layer of cells that covers all internal surfaces of the bone.
*Bone growth, repair, and remodeling.
Cells of bones.
Osteoblasts ~ produce new bone. Differentiate into osteocytes.
Osteocytes ~ mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts. Reside in "lacunae".
Osteoclasts ~ phagocytic cells. Bone resorption.
Osteolysis ~ release of Ca+ and phosphate from bone matrix.