Nutrition EXAM 1

  1. guide used to encourage consumers to adopt a balance eating plan.
    Food Guide
  2. a grain milled in its entirety
    whole grain
  3. fortified
    addition of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in insignificant amounts
  4. refined
    process that removes the course parts of a food. in the case of wheat, the bran germ and husk are removed leaving only the endoperm
  5. enriched
    addition of nutrients to a food lost during processing so that a food can meet a specific standard
  6. General healthy guidelines of the USDA food guide are as follows:
    • 1. Include plenty of whole grains (at least 1/2 should be whole grains)
    • 2. limit intakes of food and beveras with solid fats and added sugars
    • 3. select lean cuts of meats
    • 4. Make fat-free or low fat dairy choices
    • 5. consume a variety of fruits and no more than 1/3 as fruit juice
  7. daily value
    defined as the reference value developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels. This value is 2000 calories/day
  8. diet planning tool that organizes food by their proportions of carbohydrate, fat and protein. foods on any single list can be used inerchangeably. Generally used with Type2 diabetics and in weight control (weight watchers)
    Exchange Lists
  9. according to exchange lists corn, peas, and potatoes are on what list?
    • Starch list instead of vegetables
    • b/c they are closer in energy value to breads and cereals than veggies.
  10. what list is bacon on in the exchange lists?
    • Fat list.
    • It has very litl protein and significant amounts of fats.
  11. Instead of fruit group exchange list puts olives on what group?
    Fats. they are similiar to foods on the fat exchange lists. foods on the fruit list contain no fat.
  12. assigns food to 5 major groups
    USDA food guide
  13. what are some factors that influence food choices
    • 1. person preferences
    • 2. Habit
    • 3. Ethnic heritage or tradition
    • 4. social interactions
    • 5. availability, convenience, economy
    • 6. positive and negative associations
    • 7. emotional comfort
    • 8. Values
    • 9. Body, weight and image
    • 10. Nutrition and health benefits
  14. what is phytochemicals
    • nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived food that have biological activity in the body
    • ex: orange juice fortified with calcium to help build strong bones and margarine modewith a plant sterol that lowers cholesterol.
  15. what are macronutrients
    carbohydrates, fat and protein are sometimes called these b/c the body requires them in relatively large amounts. (many grams a day)
  16. what are micronutrients
    vitamins and minerals are called these . they are required only in small amounts (milligrams or micrograms daily)
  17. what are legumes? and thier benefits?
    • beans. (plants of the bean and pea family with seeds that are rich in protein compared with plant-derived foods).
    • can be used instead of meats, and veggies.
    • protein, iron and zinc like meats.
    • fiber and b vitamin folate like veggies.
  18. the semilquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
  19. wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along
  20. a period of squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at internvals along its length by its circular muscles
  21. a chemical reaction in which a major reactant is split into two products, with the addition of a hydrogen atom to one and a hydroxyl group to the other
  22. disease progresses slowly or with little change and lasts a long time.
    Chronic Disease
  23. disease develops quickly, produces sharp symptoms, and runs a short course
    acute disease
  24. what are the 6 classes of Nutrients?
    • 1. Minerals
    • 2. Water
    • 3.Carbohydrate
    • 4. Lipids (fats)
    • 5. Proteins
    • 6. Vitamins
  25. nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs: also called Indispensable nutrients
    Essential nutrients
  26. the nutrients that break down the yield energy the body can use: carbohydrate, fat, protein
    energy-yeilding nutrients
  27. a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada. These values are used for planning and assessing diets and include: o Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) o Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)o Adequate Intakes (AI)o Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
    Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
  28. the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined.
    Adequate Intake (AI)
  29. the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined.
    Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
  30. The average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a give age and gender group
    Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
  31. Minerals
    inorganic elements. Some minerals are essential nutrients in small amounts by the body for health
  32. Vitamins
    organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health.
  33. Secondary deficiency
    : a nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient.
  34. Primary deficiency
    : a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient. EX: body has too little iron b/c it is lacking in person’s diet
  35. 4 components of Nutrition Assessment:
    • 1. Historical information: person’s history w respects to health status, socioeconomic status, drug use and diet. 2. Anthropometric Data: measurement of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height and weight
    • 3. Physical examination: clues to a poor nutrition status. Hair, eyes, skin
    • 4.Laboratory Tests: Samples of blood, and urine.
  36. the addition of water to break a molecule into smaller pieces.
  37. a periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at intervals along its length by its circular muscles.
  38. wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along.
  39. the semi liquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
  40. a portion; with respect to food, the amount swallowed at one time.
  41. conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine
    Bile duct
  42. the lower portion of intestine that completes the digestive process. It segments are the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon and the sigmoid colon.
    Large intestine
  43. the last segment of the small intestine
  44. the first two-fifths of the small intestine beyond the duodenum.
  45. the top portion of the small intestine
  46. a circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, a body opening. Found in specific points along the GI tract and regulate the flow of food particles.
  47. cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents fluid or food from entering it when a person swallows
  48. the space within a vessel, such as intestine
  49. fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine
  50. tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells
  51. tubular glands that lie between the intestine villi and secrete intestinal juices into the small intestine
  52. cells of the GI tract (and lungs) that secrete mucus.
    Goblet Cells
  53. a loosely organized system of vessels and ducts that convey fluids toward the heart. The GI part of the lymphatic system carries the products of fat digestion into the bloodstream.
    Lymphatic System
Card Set
Nutrition EXAM 1
nutrition chp 1-6