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  1. benjamin lee worf
    • argued language molds cognition and perception
    • grammar affects how we think about time, space, etc
  2. units of meaning that are made up of concepts that express a unitary idea
  3. multitasking
    stress and errors increase while memory suffers
  4. nonconcious processes
    • remain outside of awareness
    • intuition/insight
    • clues-->hunch-->concious-->solution
  5. learn something without a concious intention to do so
    implicit learning
  6. jerome kagan
    • conciousness is like a fire department
    • performs only when the alarm sounds
  7. juries use which kind of reasoning?
  8. make different assumptions about how things are known and use different ways of defending their beliefs
    reflective judgment
  9. assume that a correct answer always exists, and it can be found through our senses
    prereflective stages
  10. recognize that some things cannot be known with absolute certainty, realize they need suppot, but only pay attention to evidence that fits what they already believe
    quasi-reflective stages
  11. capuchin monkeys
    recieved cucumber for a token, once they saw the other monkeys receiving grapes they refused to exchange their tokens anymore
  12. scott hawkins and reid hastie
    hindsight bias is the dark side of successful learning
  13. mariah keech
    • promised believers they would be picked up in a flying saucer, once this failed she said they had been spared because of their faithfulness
    • (had to increase belife to avoid realization of foolishness)-dissonance
  14. need to justify your decision because of ____ when you worry you made the wrong choice
    postdecision dissonance
  15. children in the west:
    not in the west:
    • classify by categories
    • clsaify by qualities/functions
  16. peoples performance depends on:
    their own expectaion of how they will do
  17. claude steele
    stereotype threat
  18. exceptional talents in one area despite poor functioning in all others
  19. animals have a sense of number
    • chimpanzees chose the cup with more chocolates than the cup with less
    • they can remember for 20 minutes which holds more
  20. the ability to combine elements that themselves are menaingless into utterances that convey meaning
  21. tendency to falsey attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings
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