1. What are some characteristics of HOLs?
    They use English-like statements to increase user understanding, are nearly self-documenting, and permit the use of most scientific and mathematic notations. Programs written for one computer can usually be used on another computer with few changes.
  2. Name four HOLs and give a reason for using each.
    FORTRAN: For numeric equations. COBOL: Language of choice for writing programs to produce reports or formatted output products. Ada: For embedded computer applications, DOD MCS. Pascal: Used to teach PL, developed into an easy and powerful language.
  3. What are some characteristics of assembler language?
    Instead of writing English-like statements, the programmer writes mnemonics, which are converted directly to machine language by a language processor. These languages are machine specific.
  4. What is machine code?
    Instructions written or existing in a form acceptable by a computer.
  5. What is the distinction of an interpreted language?
    No permanent object code is produced.
  6. What is the European Organization for Nuclear Research commonly known as?
    CERN, is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory.
  7. How would you best describe a URL?
    The address of a file or resource accessible on the Internet.
  8. What is HTML?
    The set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a Web browser page.
  9. What significant role will XHTML play in the future?
    Most likely to succeed HTML for Internet purposes.
  10. Describe CGI.
    A standard method for a Web server to pass a Web users request to an application program and to exchange data back to the user.
  11. Define secure socket layer.
    A commonly used protocol for managing the security of a message transmission on the Internet. A forerunner will likely be TLS, which is based on SSL architecture. SSL uses a program layer located between the Internet's HTTP and TCP layers.
  12. What is session management?
    Session management is the process of keeping track of a users activity across sessions of interaction with the computer system.
  13. Why is session management useful when using the internet?
    Without it, you would have to re-authenticate yourself every time you clicked on a hyperlink, rendering the internet almost useless for secure communications.
  14. Give an example of a session management used for security?
    With some Websites, for security reasons, the session is terminated after a period of time of inactivity, say ten minutes. After that, you must re-authenticate yourself to the server.
  15. What are the methods of optimizing your system?
    Task manager, disk defragmenter, chkdsk, and disk quotas.
  16. What triggers can you set the task manager to launch a program on?
    Daily, weekly, monthly, one time only, when the computer starts, and when you log on.
  17. What would happen if you tried to run CHKDSK while you were using the system?
    If any files or applications are running, check disk informs you it could not gain exclusive access to the drive. It then asks if you want to schedule check disk to run the next time your computer starts. The answer would be Yes.
  18. How does defragmenting improve your systems performance?
    Gathers all the pieces of files and folders, reorganizes things a little and rewrites the files and folders in a continuous fashion. In other words, it puts all the pages back in order with one beginning and one ending.
  19. How can you best describe a radix and what does it indicate?
    Also known as the base and indicates the number of digits used in a particular numbering system.
  20. What is an exponent and what does it indicate?
    Written as a superscript, located on the upper right side of the number. An exponent indicates how many times a number is to be multiplied by itself. The value of the exponent is known as the power.
  21. Explain the difference between the most and least significant digits.
    The MSD is the left most nonzero digit of a numeric value. The MSD is the digit that expresses the greatest possible value. The LSD is the rightmost digit of a numeric value to include zeros.
  22. State the purpose of a fractional point.
    The point that separates the whole portion of the number from the fractional portion of a number.
  23. State how you would convert a decimal number to a binary equivalent.
    Divide the decimal value by the base value (2). The remainder then becomes the LSD. Next, divide the result again by the base, and the remainder becomes the digit to the left of the LSD. Continue this pattern until the result is zero.
  24. State how you would convert a binary number to a hexadecimal equivalent.
    Separate the binary number into groups of four. To come up with the result, add the decimal value of each bit containing a one and convert the sum to a valid hexadecimal digit. Then combine the digits together to form one hexadecimal number.
  25. State how you would convert a decimal number to a hexadecimal equivalent.
    Divide the decimal number by the base (16). The remainder is the LSD. Then, divide the result by the base again. The remainder becomes the digit to the left of the LSD. Continue this process until the result is zero.
  26. From an IT contingency planning perspective, what are the two primary functions of risk management?
    First, Identify threats and vulnerabilities so that appropriate controls can be put into place to either prevent incidents from happening, or to limit the effects of an incident. Second, Identify residual risks for which contingency plans must be placed.
  27. Describe the three main classifications of threat.
    Natural - Hurricane, tornado, flood, and fire. Human - Operator error, sabotage, implant of malicious code, and terrorist attacks. Environmental - Equipment failure, software error, telecommunications network outage, and electric power failure.
  28. Describe a COOP.
    Focuses on restoring an organizations (usually a headquarters element) essential functions at an alternate site and performing those functions for up to 30 days before returning to normal operations.
  29. What should a contingency plan spell out?
    What systems are prioritized in what order for the basis of protecting those systems from disasters and contingency and for bringing those systems back online.
  30. What criteria should you consider when selecting an offsite storage facility?
    Geographic area, accessibility, security, environment, and cost.
  31. Name the five types of alternate sites.
    Cold, warm, hot, mobile, and mirrored sites.
  32. Why should you focus most of your backup efforts on data instead of programs?
    Data that is unique and software can always be re-loaded.
  33. What three factors is the choice of backup media based on?
    Size, cost, and speed.
  34. Name the four different types of backup you can schedule.
    Full (also known as normal), differential, incremental, and daily.
  35. Why should you keep a copy of your backups at an alternate location?
    The problem or damage effects only your primary site and not your offsite.
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