1. What is the first job of the BIOS at system startup?
    Run the power-on self-test (POST).
  2. What does the CMOS store and what other component uses this information?
    The configuration information about the computer; BIOS.
  3. How is main memory distinguished from secondary memory?
    By the speed between the main and secondary memory.
  4. When power is removed from the computer, what happens to the stored information in ROM?
    Its contents remain in memory.
  5. Why is RAM considered as volatile memory?
    Because the contents are erased (lost) from memory.
  6. How are dynamic RAM and static RAM different?
    DRAM chips must be refreshed constantly or they lose their contents. SRAM chips will hold their data without needing to be refreshed as long as power is supplied, thus the term static is used.
  7. What is cache memory and what is normally stored in it?
    Temporary storage area; a collection of data duplicating original values.
  8. What is the main goal of buffers?
    To temporarily hold data used by some type of hardware device until the device is ready to utilize the data.
  9. What is the purpose of the DMA controller?
    To move data and to freeing up the CPU to process data.
  10. Define an interrupt.
    An asynchronous signal from a computer hardware device indicating the need for attention (from the CPU) or a synchronous event in a software application program indicating the need for a change in execution.
  11. How are interrupts commonly used?
    For computer multitasking, especially in real-time computing.
  12. Describe data integrity in a simple manner.
    The assurance that data is consistent, correct, and accessible.
  13. What is parity?
    A method in which the computer ensures the data it processes is accurate.
  14. What is the difference between error correction code (ECC) memory and the parity method?
    The parity method can only detect an error while ECC memory can both detect and correct errors.
  15. Give three examples of storage devices that can be placed in a SAN.
    Disk arrays, CD/DVD towers, tape libraries.
  16. How can using a SAN make equipment failure easier to repair?
    The data does not need to be affected; you can replace only the server.
  17. What are the three protocols listed that support a SAN?
    Fibre Channel, ATA over Ethernet, iSCSI.
  18. How does a SAN and a NAS differ?
    A SAN appears to the server to be physically attached; the NAS is treated as a network drive.
  19. Why is a hardware implementation of RAID preferred over a software version?
    It does not require CPU time as the controller card has a processer on board. Second, a hardware RAID can be set to boot off of the array. Third, the controller card usually has its own I/O cache, so the system does not devote resources to data flow.
  20. What are the three concepts of RAID?
    Mirroring, striping, and error correction.
  21. Why is RAID 5 considered to be more efficient when it comes to parity checks?
    Because you do not need separate hard drives for parity checks.
  22. What are nested RAID arrays?
    One array type is nested within another array type.
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