Nitrogen Fixation occurs in soil for plants to use
The major reservoir for phosphorus is rock and soil
Plants take in Carbon and release oxygen. Plants are in soil
What is a niche?
utilization of biotic and abiotic resources
What is a habitat?
Place the organism lives
What is carrying capacity?
The maximum population size that an environment can support at a particular time with no degradation to the habitat
What is a Biome?
A terrestrial ecosystem largely determined by climate and characterized by organisms best suited to the environment
How could you count a plant population?
Quadratic or Transect
How could you count consumer populations?
Counting, Plot Estimation, Mark and Recapture
What is population?
A group of organisms of one species that live in the same place at the same time
The study of living and non-living components of the environment and of the interactions that affect biological species.
Define exponential growth
Almost any organism provided with ideal conditions for growth and reproduction will experience a rapid increase in its population
Define logistic growth
Most populations go through a number of growth phases, which can be represented on a logistic growth curve.
Density dependant limiting factors are defined as?
When factors that control population size operate more strongly on large populations than on small ones.
Define Density independent limiting factors:
Natural occurances that affect a population
What is symbioses?
What is steady state?
Average growth rate is 0, rise and fall of the population averages out to 0.
Carrying capacity, define:
If you draw a horizontal line through the middle of the steady state region, the line will tell us how big the population is in teh steady state; tells us carrying capactiy.
The weather conditions of a location averaged over many years
The day to day environmental conditions in a location
Which biogeochemical processes does water participate in?
What is another name for the water cycle?
Macronutrients important to life on earth are?
What % of the atmosphere is composed of Nitrogen?
What process to plants adn animals depend on for their nitrogen source?
How does the phosphorus cycle differ from the other cycles?
Atmosphere is not involved
What are the four biogeochemical cycles?
Define Ecological Succession:
The replacement of an existing community by a different community over a period of time
Define Pioneer Species:
An organism that colonizes an area void of living things.
Define Climax community:
A relatively stable collection of plants and animals that results from ecological succession
Define Tropical Rainforest:
Located near the equator
Av. Rainfall is between 1.5m and 2.5m each year
Not a single dry season
Has young soil with poor nutritional stability
Has the least amount of animals
Largest biome in Canada
Soil is porous and a thin layer of nutrient rich humus
Dry and wet seasons
Sandy, coarse soild with little organic matter
Found in hot climates
Has less than 1% salt
Located in the Northern part of the World
Partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it with a free connection to the open sea
What is the quadrat method?
Rectangular, ratio 2:1
Site placement: random
Used to predict populations for an entire area
Define Transect Method
Provides baseline for sampling
Straight line across area
Line Placement: Random
used when populations change drastically in area
Define Counting method
Count each one in the population
Define plot estimation
Estimate the # of individuals in a plot area and expand to larger area
Define Mark and Recapture
traps are set to capture a species which are then marked and released. ( Any marked species that are recaptured are taken into consideration when calculating the estimated population)
What are the 3 dispersion patterns?
Clumped: Clumped together in small groups, common in nature
Uniform: Spaced evenly in an area- results from interaction among individual of a population
Random: Spaced unpredictably, very rare due to environmental conditions
What are the factors that determine carrying capacity?
Materials and Energy
What does crop rotation do?
decreases pests and disease
Rotate between cereal, legume adn summer fallow
What are the four cereals?
What are the oil seeds?
What are the pulse crops?
What are the forage crops?
Wheat grass/ bromes
What are the different types of crops?
Define Asexual reproduction
Any method of reproduction that requires only one parent or parent cell
What are the six types of Asexual reproduction?
Rhizomes: underground stem that sends out shoots from nodes
Tuber: modified rhizomes specialized for storage that produces new plants from "buds"
Bulb: underground bud containing fleshy leaves and a short stem
Stolon: above ground horizontal stem that produces new roots and shoots
Cuttings: a piece from the source plant is cut off and placed in suitable media to grow
Grafting: Where tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse wiht those of another
Define Sexual reproduction
Reproduction involving the contribution of genetic material from two parents
How does sexual reproduction work?
Pollen interacts with the pistil to produce seed that will grow into a new plant with new genetic material
What are the advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction
ADVANTAGES: Allows plants that are well adapted to the environment to produce identical copies, can make multiple copies of the same plant quickly and easily, doesn't rely on another species for propogation
DISADVANTAGES: No genetic variation, copies are relatively close to parent
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Sexual reproduction
ADVANTAGES: allows genetic variation, seeds are durable and some hibernate, seeds can be carried away from parent plants
DISADVANTAGES: sometimes rely on other species for transfer of pollen