AP Bio

  1. Adaption
    inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in specific environments
  2. Aleternation of Generations
    a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae
  3. Centromere
    the specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached
  4. Chromatin
    The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists in its dispersed form, as a mass of very long thin fibers
  5. Chromatid
    one of two identical chromosomal strands into which a chromosome splits to prepare for cell division
  6. Chromosome
    a cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
  7. Convergent Evolution
    the evolution of similar features in independent evolutionary lineages
  8. Cytokinesis
    the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis, meiosis I or meiosis II
  9. Diploid
    a cell containing two sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent
  10. Divergent Evolution
    The naturally selected changes in related species that once shared a characteristic in common but have come to be different. (have a common ancestor)
  11. Gene Pool
    the total genetic information in the gametes of all individuals in a population
  12. Genetic Drift
    random changes in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool, usually of small populations
  13. Haploid
    a cell containing only one set of chromosomes
  14. Mutation
    change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism’s DNA, creating genetic diversity
  15. Population
    all the individuals of one species in a given area
  16. Population Bottleneck
    evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing
  17. Polymorphism
    presence of two or more distinct phenotypes in s population due to expression of different alleles of a given gene, like human blood groups
  18. Species
    a population able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species
  19. Tetrad
    a group of four chromatids formed by synapsis at the beginning of meiosis
  20. Zygote
    • the diploid product of the union of haploid gametes during fertilization;
    • a fertilized egg
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AP Bio