1. People with astonishing memory abilities
  2. Psychologists define memory as
    the retention of information or experience over time.
  3. The first step in memory is____, the process by which information gets into memory storage.
  4. also affects memory encoding.
    Divided attention
  5. refers in to a continuum from shallow to intermediate to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory.
    Levels of processing
  6. the number of different connections that are made around a stimulus at any given level of memory encoding
  7. Physical features are analyzed.
    Shallow Processing
  8. Stimulus is recognized and labeled.
    Intermediate Processing
  9. Semantic, meaningful, symbolic characteristics are used
    Deep processing
  10. The number of different connections made around a stimulus at any given level of encoding
  11. Relating material to your own experience
  12. Theory that memory for pictures is better than memory for words
    Dual-code hypothesis
  13. Why is picture stronger than words for memory?
    Because you store images as word and picture
  14. How information is retained over time & represented in memory
  15. Theory that memory involves 3 separate items
    Atkinson-Shiffrin theory
  16. 3 items in the theory of memory storage
    Sensory, short-term, long-term
  17. What holds information from the world for an instant?
    Sensory memory
  18. Auditory-sensory memory
  19. Visual sensory memory
  20. Limited-capacity memory, usually only 30 seconds
    Short-term memory
  21. Number of digits an individual can report back in order after a single presentation of them
    Memory span
  22. Grouping or packing information that exceeds the 7-2 memory span into higher-order units
  23. Conscious repetition of information
  24. Atkinson & Shiffrin's term fails to capture
    The dynamic way short-term memory functions
  25. Three-part system that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks
    Working memory
  26. In working memory, specialized to briefly store speech-based information
    Phonological loop
  27. Stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery
    Visuospatial working memory
  28. Integrates information not only from the phonogical loop & visuospatial working memory but also long-term
    Central executive
  29. Relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time
    Long-term memory
  30. Divisions of long-term memory
    Explicit and implicit
  31. Conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts, & information that can be verbally connected
  32. Two subtypes of explicit memory
    Episodic and semantic
  33. Retention of information about where, when, what
  34. Person's knowledge about the word
    Semantic memory
  35. In amnesia, ________ is functioning and __________ isn't
    Semantic, episodic
  36. Memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience
    Implicit memory
  37. Other word for implicit memory
  38. Type of implicit memory process that involves memory for skills
    Procedural memory
  39. Type of conditioning involved in implict memory
  40. Activation of information people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster
  41. Preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information
  42. Schema for an event, often containing information about physical features, people, and occurences
  43. Theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons
    Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing
  44. View that memories are not large knowledge structures but like electrical impulses
    connectionist view
  45. Researchers have proposed this concept to explain how memory functions at the neuron level.
    long-term potentiation
  46. Frontal lobes/memory
  47. Amygdala/memory
    emotional memories
  48. Temporal lobes / memory
    explicit memory, priming
  49. Hippocampus/memory
    explicit memory priming, memory consolidation
  50. Cerebellum
    implicit memory
  51. Nerves in the nose send information about smells to the primary olfactory cortex in the brain, which links directly to the
    amygdala and hippocampus.
  52. Thus, smells have a superhighway to the brain structures involved in
    emotion and memory consolidation
  53. The memory process that occurs when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage
  54. The tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle.
    Serial Position Effect
  55. better recall for items at the beginning of a list
    The primacy effect
  56. better recall for items at the end of the list.
    The recency effect
  57. In primacy effect, the first few items in the list are easily remembered
    because they are rehearsed more or receive more elaborative processing
  58. In recency effect, the last several items are remembered for different reasons.
    they might still be in working memory or they were just encountered
  59. Memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information, as on essay tests.
  60. Memory task in which the individual only has to identify (recognize) learned items, as on multiple-choice tests
  61. Principle states that information present at the time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue
    Encoding specificity principle
  62. People remember better when they attempt to recall information in the same context in which they learned it
    context-dependent memory.
  63. A special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person's recollections of his or her life experiences.
    autobiographical memory
  64. The most abstract level of autobiographical memory
    life time periods
  65. Middle level in the hierarchy of autobiographical memory
    general events
  66. The most concrete level in autobiographical memory
    event-specific knowledge
  67. describing life experiences that go from bad to better
    redemptive stories
  68. individuals who describe redemptive stories are more
  69. selfdefining memories go from good to bad
    contamination stories
  70. Memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events.
    flashbulb memory
  71. Forgetting when something is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering it is intolerable
    motivated forgetting
  72. when the information was never entered into long-term memory
    Encoding failure
  73. Causes of retrieval failure include problems with the
    information in storage, the effects of time, personal reasons for remembering or forgetting, and the brain's condition
  74. The theory that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember.
    interference theory
  75. Situation in which material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material that was learned later
    Interference proactive interference
  76. Situation in which material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval of information that was learned earlier.
    retroactive interference
  77. Theory stating that when we learn something new, a neurochemical memory trace forms, but over time this trace disintegrates; suggests that the passage of time always increases forgetting
    decay theory
  78. A type of effortful retrieval that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory.
    tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon
  79. Remembering information from the past.
    retrospective memory
  80. Remembering information about doing something in the future; includes memory for intentions.
    prospective memory
  81. A memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events.
    anterograde amnesia
  82. Memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events.
    retrograde amnesia
Card Set
Chapter 6