1. science
  2. the process of using
    observations and experiments to draw evidence-based conclusions
  3. anecdotal evidence
  4. an informal observation that
    has not been systematically tested
  5. peer review
  6. a process in which
    • independent scientific experts read scientific studies before their
    • publication to ensure that the authors have appropriately designed
    • and interpreted their study
  7. hypothesis
  8. a testable and falsifiable
    explanation for a scientific observation or question
  9. testable
  10. a hypothesis is testable if
    • it can be supported or rejected by carefully designed experiments or
    • non-experimental studies
  11. falsifiable
  12. describes a hypothesis that
    • can be ruled out by data that show that the hypothesis does not
    • explain the observation
  13. experiment
  14. a carefully designed test,
    the results of which will either support or rule out a hypothesis
  15. experimental group
  16. the group in an experiment
    that experiences the experimental intervention or manipulation
  17. control group
  18. the group in an experiment
    that experiences no experimental intervention or manipulation
  19. placebo
  20. a fake treatment given to
    control groups to mimic the experience of the experimental groups
  21. placebo effect
  22. the effect observed when
    • members of a control group display a measurable response to a placebo
    • because they think that they are receiving a “real” treatment
  23. independent variable
  24. the variable, or factor,
    being deliberately changed in the experimental group
  25. dependent variable
  26. the measured result of an
    experiment, analyzed in both the experimental and control groups
  27. sample size
  28. the number of experimental
    • subjects or the number of times an experiment is repeated. In human
    • studies, sample size is the number of subjects
  29. statistical significance
  30. a measure of confidence that
    the results obtained are “real”, rather than due to random chance
  31. scientific theory
  32. a hypothesis that is
    • supported by many years of rigorous testing and thousands of
    • experiments
  33. epidemiology
  34. the stuff of patterns of
    disease in populations, including risk factors
  35. correlation
  36. a consistent relationship
    between two variables
  37. randomized clinical trial
  38. a controlled medical
    • experiment in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive either an
    • experimental treatment or a standard treatment (or placebo)
Card Set
chapter 1