A & P ch 1

  1. define anatomy
    the study of structure
  2. define physiology
    the study of function
  3. subdivisions of anatomy
    • gross/macroscopic anatomy (regional, surface and systemic)
    • microscopic anatomy (cytology and histology)
    • developmental (embryology)
  4. essential tools for study of anatomy (5)
    • mastery of anatomical terminology
    • observation
    • manipulation
    • palpation (live)
    • auscultation (live)
  5. principle of complementarity
    function always reflects structure. what a structure can do depends on its form
  6. essential tools for the study of physiology (3)
    • ability to focus at many levels ( systemic to cellular and molecular
    • basic physical principles (electrical currents, pressure and movement)
    • basic chemical principles
  7. levels of structural organization in humans
    • chemical
    • cellular
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • organismal
  8. name the organ systems (11)
    • integumentary
    • endocrine
    • nervous
    • digestive
    • reproductive
    • cardiovascular
    • respiratory
    • urinary
    • muscular
    • skeletal
    • lymphatic
  9. necessary life functions (8)
    • maintain boundaries
    • digestion
    • metabolism
    • movement
    • responsiveness
    • growth
    • excretion
    • reproduction (cellular and offspring)
  10. survival needs (5)
    • oxygen
    • water
    • nutrients
    • normal body temperature
    • atmospheric pressure
  11. parts and function of integumentary system
    • hair, skin and nails
    • protects deeper tissues, synthesizes vitamin D, houses cutaneous receptors and sweat and oil glands
  12. parts and function of skeletal system
    • bones and joints
    • protects and supports body organs, provides a framework for muscles to use for movement, production of blood cells, storage of minerals
  13. parts and function of muscular system
    • skeletal muscles
    • allow manipulation of environment, locomotion, facial expression, maintain posture, produce heat
  14. parts and function of nervous system
    • brain, spinal cord, nerves
    • fast-acting control system, responds to internal and external stimuli by activating appropriate muscles and glands
  15. parts and function of endocrine system
    • thyroid, pineal, pituitary, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, testis, ovary
    • glands secrete hormones that regulate processes like growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells
  16. parts and function of cardiovascular system
    • heart, blood vessels
    • transport blood with oxygen, CO2, nutrients, wastes
  17. parts and function of lymphatic system
    • red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, spleen, lymph nodes, thoracic duct
    • returns fluid leaked from blood vessels, disposes of debris in lymphatic stream, houses white blood cells, immune response
  18. parts and function of respiratory system
    • nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus
    • supplies blood with oxygen and removes CO2
  19. parts and function of digestive system
    • oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
    • breaks food down into absorbable units that enter blood for distribution to body cells, indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces
  20. parts and function of urinary system
    • kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
    • eliminate nitrogenous wastes, regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood
  21. parts and function of reproductive system
    • male - penis, testes, prostate, ductus deferens, scrotum
    • female - mammary, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube
    • production of offspring, testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to female reproductive tract, ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones, remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of fetus
  22. homeostasis
    • maintenance of relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes
    • dynamic state of equilibrium
  23. components of homeostatic control mechanism
    • receptor - monitors environment and responds to stimuli
    • control center - determines set point at which variable is maintained, receives input from receptor, determines appropriate response
    • effector - receives output from control center, provides means to respond, response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus
  24. negative feedback homeostatic response
    response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus eg, temp. control by the body
  25. positive feedback homeostatic response
    response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus eg. blood clotting, oxytocin
  26. homeostatic imbalance
    • increased risk of disease
    • contributes to changes associated with aging
    • may allow destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over (heart failure)
  27. standard anatomical position
    • body erect
    • feet slightly apart
    • palms forward
  28. superior (cranial)
    toward the head
  29. inferior (caudal)
    toward the feet
  30. ventral (anterior)
    toward the front
  31. dorsal (posterior)
    toward the back
  32. medial
    toward the midline
  33. lateral
    away from the midline
  34. intermediate
    between more medial and more lateral structure
  35. proximal
    closer to point of attachment or origin
  36. distal
    further from attachment or point of origin
  37. superficial (external)
    toward body surface
  38. deep (internal)
    away from body surface
  39. 2 major divisions of the body
    • axial - head, neck, trunk
    • appendicular - limbs
  40. regional terms for specific areas
    • cephalic
    • cervical
    • thoracic
    • abdominal
    • pelvic
    • pubic
    • upper limb
    • manus (hand)
    • lower limb
    • pedal (foot)
    • back (dorsal)
  41. body planes
    • sagittal - midsagittal (median) is on midline, parasagittal is not on midline
    • frontal (coronal)
    • transverse (horizontal)

    oblique (diagonal)
  42. body cavities
    • dorsal
    • ventral
  43. dorsal cavity subdivisions
    • cranial cavity - brain
    • vertebral cavity - spinal cord
  44. ventral cavity subdivisions
    • thoracic cavity - heart and lungs
    • abdominopelvic cavity - digestive organs, urinary, reproductive
  45. thoracic cavity subdivisions
    • mediastinum - contains pericardial cavity and surrounds thoracic organs
    • pericardial cavity - encloses heart
    • 2 pleural cavities - each with a lung
  46. abdominopelvic cavity subdivisions
    • abdominal cavity - stomach, intestines, spleen, liver
    • pelvic cavity - urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum
  47. serous membrane
    • thin, double-layered membrane separated by serous fluid
    • parietal lines internal body walls
    • visceral covers internal organs
  48. abdominopelvic quadrants
    • right upper quadrant - liver, part of lg intestine, gall bladder
    • right lower quadrant - part of lg intestine, part of small intestine, appendix, part of urinary bladder
    • left upper quadrant - stomach, part of lg intestine
    • left lower quadrant - parts of lg and sm intestines, part of urinary bladder
  49. abdominopelvic regions used by anatomists
    • right hypochondriac region - liver, gall bladder
    • epigastric region - stomach
    • left hypochondriac region - part of stomach
    • right lumbar region - ascending colon of lg intestine
    • umbilical region - sm intestine
    • left lumbar region - descending colon of lg intestine
    • right inguinal/iliac region - cecum, appendix
    • hypogastric region - urinary bladder
    • left inguinal/iliac region - initial part of sigmoid colon
Card Set
A & P ch 1
intro to anatomy