1. What are the rules for data
    tables & graphs – can you identify incorrect things about each if given an
    • Tables-must be in
    • box shape, title the table, vertical columns, horizontal rows, large and easy
    • to read Graphs-use at least ¾ of the graphing space, title the graph,
    • Horizontal axis, Vertical Axis
  2. What is a hypothesis (as
    defined in class)?

    • An explanation based
    • on observations that is tested with an experiment
  3. How is a hypothesis
    different from an inference?
    • An experiment can be
    • tested and an inference cannot
  4. What is a scientific
    • An explanation that
    • joins related, accepted hypothesis
  5. What are independent
    • the condition
    • controlled/manipulated by the experimenter
  6. What are dependent variables,
    • The condition that is
    • measured/observed
  7. What are control groups
    • standard for
    • comparison; usually represents normal settings
  8. What are the expiramental groups and can you identify them in an experiment.
    • what you test in the
    • experiment and yes I can
  9. What are the eight
    characteristics of life?
    • .Made of cells
    • 2.Response to Environment 3.Obstain and Use Energy 4.Growth and Development
    • 5.Reproduction 6.Homostasis 7.Universal Genetic Code
  10. What does homeostasis mean?
    • to maintain a stable
    • internal environment
  11. What are the six elements
    essential to all of life?
    • Sulfur, Phosphorus,
    • Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen
  12. What are the subatomic
    particles? Which ones are found in the
    nucleus of the atom?
    • protons(nucleus),
    • neutrons(nucleus), Electrons
  13. How many electrons are
    found in each energy level (for the first 20 elements)?
  14. Describe each type of bond:
    • ionic, attraction
    • between negatively and positively charged ions covalent, when atoms share electrons to fill their energy levels
    • and hydrogen, when H in one molecule is attracted
    • to a slightly negative atom of another molecule
  15. Know the properties of
    • polarity, cohesion
    • and adhesion, universal solvent, and capillary action
  16. What is the difference
    between a substance that is hydrophilic doesn’t
    like water and hydrophobic?
    1 no like 2 like
  17. What is and acid?
    ph below 7
  18. what is a base
    ph above 7
  19. Know the pH scale and where to identify strong
    acids 1-3 strong bases, 12-14 weak acids 4-6
    and weak bases 8-11 and neutral liquids 7
    • 1.
    • Know the pH scale and where to identify strong
    • acids 1-3 strong bases, 12-14 weak acids 4-6
    • and weak bases 8-11 and neutral liquids 7
  20. What happens in a
    hydrolysis reaction?
  21. breaks bonds between monomers by adding a water molecule
  22. For carbohydrates
    proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, know the monomer for each
    monosaccharide,amino acid, glycerol and fatty acids,nucleotide
  23. What proteins are
    considered “biological catalysts” because they speed up chemical reactions
  24. What is magnification
    The ability to increase an objects size
  25. What is resolution?
    The quality or sharpness of an image
  26. What is the formula used to
    determine the total magnification on the microscope?
    • .
    • Power of eyepiece
    • times power of objective lens
  27. What is a cell?
    The smallest, basic, unit of life
  28. how are prokaryotes
    different from eukaryotes?
    E, are more complex than p's
  29. What are two types of Eukaryotes
    animal, Plant
  30. allows only certain
    materials to go into and out of the cell
  31. What structure does selective permiability describe?
    The plasma membrane
  32. What molecule makes up the
    cell membrane?
  33. How are vacuoles different
    in animal and plant cells?
    In animal cell there are mulitiple variations
  34. What two cell structures
    are found only in plant cells?
    Choloropasts and the cell wall
  35. What internal cell
    structure is found in animal cells only?
  36. How are cilia and flagella
    • 1.
    • cilia is short and
    • hair like but flagellum is long and whip like
  37. For each of the following structures, identify its
    • cell
    • wall- rigid layer outside membrane
    • centrioles-cylinder
    • shaped microtubules
    • chloroplast-makes energy by converting sunlight into energy
    • cytosol
    • – the gel like fluid that suspends organelles

    • Golgi
    • Apparatus- sorts and packages proteins and
    • lipids
    • Lysosome
    • –vesicles with low pH and digestive enzymes
    • Mitochondria-makes energy by breaking down carbs.
    • nuclear
    • membrane-has pores to allow substances in and out of the cell
    • nucleus-controls activities of the cell
    • nucleolus-dark region
    • of chromatin that makes ribosomes and ribosomal DNA
    • ribosomes-makes protiens
    • rough
    • endoplasmic reticulum-has ribosomes, helps
    • modify and transport protiens
    • smooth
    • endoplasmic reticulum-doesn’t have ribosomes
    • and transports lipids
    • vacuole-stores water and food
  38. active transport
    needs ATP and passive doesn’t
  39. What is equilibrium?
    • having the same
    • concentration on both sides of the cell
  40. What is diffusion
    molecules fall down their concentration gradient
  41. What is osmosis
    Movement of water across the membrane
  42. For each solution, indicate
    the direction water will move: hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic
    hyper,inside hypo, outside, isotonic, equal
    HIGH- too much water in the cell and low is not enough water in the cell.
  44. What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis
    Endo-enter through the vesicles, Exo- exit through the vesicles
  45. For the sodium-potassium
    pump, what/how many molecules enter the cell & what/how many molecules
    leave the cell?
    • 2K enter and 3 Na
    • exit
  46. What does ATP stand for?
    adenine triphosphate.
  47. What are the 3 parts of Atp?
    adenin, ribose, and three phosphates.
  48. DEfine photosynthesis-in what organelle will this take place in?( be able to identify the chemial)
    • .
    • chloroplasts,6Co2+6H20
    • sunlight yields C6H12O6+602
  49. What pigment captures sunlight in the cloroplast
  50. Why are plants green?`
    chlorpyhll takes in all the colors except green
  51. Define cellular respiration
    – in what organelle will this mainly take place in? (Be able to identify the
    chemical equation!)
  52. processes that
    • breaks down sugar/glucose to make energy;C6H12O6+6O2
    • yields 6Co2+6H2O+ATP
  53. What is the difference
    between aerobic and anaerobic processes?
  54. 1.
    • aerobic processes
    • require oxygen anaerobic doesn’t
  55. How many ATP are made in
    aerobic respiration? In anaerobic
  56. What type of fermentation
    occurs in human muscle cells
    lactic acid
  57. What type of fermentation
    occurs in yeast?
    Ethyl Alcholol
  58. What is the cell cycle?
  59. a set of stages that
    takes place from the time a cell is made to when it divides
  60. What are the two major
    phases of the cell cycle? What happens
    in each of these phases?
  61. interphase-cell
    performs normal functions mitosis-cell division
  62. What is cytokinesis?
    divison of cytoplasm
  63. What is apoptosis?
    Why would a cell perform
  64. 1.
    • ? programmed cell
    • division because there is a problem with the cell
  65. What is a chromosome?
    a structured coiled up DNA
  66. What is a histone?
    the structure that chromosomes wrap around
  67. Why do your cells make
    chromosomes from chromatin?
    To condense the DNA
  68. What is a chromatid
    one half of a chromosome
  69. What is a centromere
    The place on a chromosome where the chromatids connect
  70. What is a kinetochore
    Devolp on either side of the centromere
  71. What is the difference between haploid and diploid cells and how many chromosomes are found in each type of cell for humans
    Haploid- one set of chromosomes 46 diploid cel-two sets of chromosomes 23
  72. Why is mitosis importan
    • allows growth and
    • development, repairs damaged cells and makes new cells, adult stem cells can be
    • used as therapies for medical conditions
  73. Why do we make new cells?
    Cells die and need to be replaced.
  74. What us cytokinesis
    Divison of Ctoplasm
  75. What is a gamete
    Reproduction Cells
  76. what are the gametes in humans
    sperm and egg cells
  77. What terms are used to describe chromosomes that pair up during meiosis?
  78. What is crossing over? When does this happen in meiosis?
    • propase 1, The exchange of
    • genetic information between non sister chromosomes
  79. What is meosis in males called?
  80. What is meosis called in females?
  81. What is made in males in the end of meosis? females?
    Sperm, one egg and 2-3 polar bodies.
  82. What is fertilization
    union of male and femal gametes
  83. What is the defference between asexual and sexual reprodutction
    sexual needs two parents and asexual only needs on
  84. What is a zygote?
    a fertilized egg
  85. What are the differences are there between animal and plant cells in mitosis
    in an animal cell a cleavege furrow is created and in a plant cell a cell plate is made
  86. Prophase-
    • chromosomes form and
    • are now visible, nucleolus and nuclear membrane fades then disappears
  87. Metapphase
    • kinetochores
    • attach to spindle fibers, centromeres and chromosomes line up in the middle of
    • the cell
  88. Anaphase
    • sister
    • chromatids split at centromere and move to opposite poles, cell begins to
    • stretch, shortest phase in mitosis
  89. Telophase
    • nuclear envelope and
    • nucleolus reform around chromatids, spindle fibers and centrioles disappear
  90. Meiosis- prophase 1
    • nuclear
    • envelope and nucleolus disappear, centrioles and spindle fibers appear,
    • chromosomes form and pair up
  91. Meiosis metaphase 1
    • spindle fibers attach
    • to kinetochores, homologous pairs randomly align along the equator
  92. Meosis anaphase 1
    • homologous pair
    • separate into single chromosomes
  93. Meosis telophase 1
    • centrioles and spindles
    • disappear, nuclear membrane reappears, cytokinesis separates two cells
  94. Define genetics
    • the study of how
    • traits are passed on from parent to offspring
  95. Define heredity
    • the passing of traits
    • from parent to offspring
  96. Define trait
    inherited characteristics
  97. Define Gene
    unit of heriditary info; codes for 1 trait
  98. Define allele
    different forms of the same gene/trait
  99. Define genotype
    Genetic makeup of an organism
  100. Define homozygous
    alleles that re different
  101. Define heterozygous
    alleles are similar
  102. Phenotype
    outward appearance determined by the genotype
  103. Who is the father of genetics
    ggregory mendell
  104. What does the law of segregation say
    Each individual has two alleles for each trait, the alleles seperate when forming gametes, each gamete contains only 1 factor, fertilization gives a new individual
  105. What does the Law of Independent Assortment say?
    Each pair of factors( alleles) for one trait will separate without regard for other traits
  106. What is polygenic inheritance? What are some examples of polygenic traits?`
    traits are controlled by two or more genes(2 or more pairs of alleles Ex; height
  107. What is a multiple allelic trait? what is an example?
    • trait
    • controlled by three or more alleles Ex: Human Blood type
  108. What is codominance? What is an example
    • two alleles are
    • equally expressed in phenotype Ex: red plus white carnations equals red AND
    • white carnations
  109. What is incomplete
    dominance? What is an example?
    • heterozygote genotype
    • shows intermediate/blended phenotype Ex: red carnations plus white carnations
    • equal pink carnations
  110. What are the two types of
    • How many do normal
    • humans have of each type? Autosomes (22-25 pairs) and sex chromosomes(two in
    • normal human
  111. Who determines the sex of the child?
    the father
  112. Who is more likely to inherit a sex linked condition?
  113. Males, because they
    only need one copy while females need two
  114. What is aneuploidy?
    An abnormal number of chromosomes
  115. What is the difference
    between monosomy and trisomy?
    Having only one copy, and having an extra copy.
  116. Identify all of the following mutations, Nondisjunction, deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation
    • Nondisjunction = chromosomes
    • fail to separate is meiosis

    • b.
    • Deletion = when a
    • chromosome part is deleted

    • c.
    • Duplication =when
    • there is more than copy of a certain chromosome piece

    • d.
    • Inversion = when
    • chromosome pieces are switched around

    • e.
    • Translocation = the
    • exchange of chromosome parts between non homologous chromosomes
  117. What is a pedigree? How do you represent females and males?
    • shows pattern of
    • inheritance for a condition
  118. what is a carrier? and who is never a carrier for sex linked conditions
    female, male
  119. What is a karyotype?
    • display of
    • chromosomes arranged by size shape and banding pattern
  120. What is genetic
    Manipulating and transfer of genes
  121. What is recombinant DNA?
    • DNA that is from two
    • or more different sources
  122. What is a transgenic
    • an organism with
    • recombinant DNA
  123. What are some uses for
    genetic engineering
    • add or remove desired
    • genes, ID genetic fingerprints
  124. What are some uses for
    genetic engineering
    • add or remove desired
    • genes, ID genetic fingerprints
  125. What is the Human Genome
    Project? Why is this project a
    significant scientific event?
  126. determined the
    sequence of DNA bases in humans
  127. For each of the following gentic conditions give a breif description; Cystic Fibrosis, down syndrome, hemophilia, huntingtons disease, klinefelter syndrome, sickle cell disease, turner syndrome
    • Cystic Fibrosis = buildup
    • of thick stick mucus in lungs and pancreas cause by recessive gene on chr.17

    • b.
    • Down Syndrome =mental
    • retardation, muscle weakness, heart defects and short stature causes by
    • nondisjunction on chr.21

    • c.
    • Hemophilia = blood
    • doesn’t clot cause by recessive X-linked

    • d.
    • Huntington’s Disease = neurodegenerative
    • disorder, appear normal until middle age caused bydominant gene on chr.4

    • e.
    • Klinefelter syndrome = males
    • who may have male + female characteristics cause by nondisjunction extra X chr.

    • f.
    • Sickle Cell Disease = red
    • blood cells are sickle shaped

    • g.
    • Turner syndrome = females
    • with incomplete development caused by nondisjunction missing X chr.
  128. What do DNA & RNA stand
  129. Deoxyribonucleic
    acid and Ribonucleic acid
  130. What is the importance of
  131. stores information
    for development and cell activities
  132. What are the three parts of
    a nucleotide
  133. sugar(deoxyribose),
    Phosphate group, Nitrogen Base
  134. What are the two categories
    of nitrogen bases
  135. Purines- adenine and
    guanine, Pryimidines-Cytosine, Thymine
  136. What were Chargaff’s
    experimental findings
  137. Within a species, A=T
    and G=C
  138. What was Rosalind
    Franklin’s contribution to the discovery of DNA’s structure?
  139. she took the first
    picture of DNA
  140. Who are the scientists that
    are given credit for discovering the structure of DNA?
    James Watson and Franscis Crick
  141. What is the shape of DNA?
    Double Helix
  142. What type of bond is found
    between sugars and phosphates?
    Covalent bonds
  143. What type of bond is found
    between nitrogen bases
    Covalent Bonds
  144. How do the nitrogen bases
    pair in a DNA molecule?
    Hydrogen bond
  145. Where does DNA replication
    take place in the cell?
  146. Why is DNA replication called
    a “semi-conservative” process?
  147. each strand of DNA
    is a template for a new strand to fill in
  148. What does the term
    “antiparallel” mean for DNA?
  149. face opposite
  150. What does the enzyme
    helicase do?
  151. unwinds and separates
    strands of DNA
  152. What does the enzyme DNA polymerase
    • adds nucleotides
    • continuously
  153. What does the enzyme DNA
    ligase do?
    • joins fragments from
    • okazaki fragments
  154. What are the differences
    between RNA & DNA?
  155. 1. Deoxyribose
    • /ribose a,c,g,t/a,c,g,u double stranded helix/ single stranded non
    • helix
  156. What is the function for each type of RNA: Messenger(mrna) transfer(tRna), ribosomal, rRNA
    • Messenger RNA (mRNA) =copies
    • information from DNA, determines amino acid sequence for protein

    • b.
    • Transfer RNA (tRNA) = brings
    • amino acids to ribosomes while base pairing to mRNA

    • c.
    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) =makes
    • up ribosomes where proteins are made
  157. What is transcription?
    Where does this take place
    • makes RNA form DNA
    • segment(nucleus
  158. What is a codon?
    • three-base sequence
    • in messenger RNA that caused the insertion of a particular amino acid into a
    • protein, or termination of translation
  159. What is translation?
    • Where does this take
    • place? Where by ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to produce a
    • polypeptide with a particular sequence of amino acids
  160. What are the general steps
    to translation?
  161. The RNA transcript
    • directs the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide the cell changes a
    • nucleotide sequence into an amino acid sequence a gene specifies the sequence
    • of amino acids in a polypeptide
  162. What do proteins consist
    of? What types of bonds link these
    components together to make a protein?
  163. amino acids, peptide
  164. What is a mutation?
  165. mutation- permanent
    change in the sequence of bases in DNA
  166. Describe the following DNA mutations: Point mutation, Framshift
    • Point mutation = involve a single strand of DNA nucleotide and therefore a change in a specific
    • codon

    • b.
    • Frameshift mutation = occur
    • mostly because of one or more nucleotides are inserted or deleted
  167. A given piece of DNA
    contains 20% adenine. How much thymine
    should be present?
  168. A given piece of DNA
    contains 10% cytosine. How much adenine
    should be present?
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