1. Referring to the video about the development of drug resistance in tuberculosis bacteria, is the bacteria analogous to the newt or to the snake?
    The Snake
  2. In the video about cystic fibrosis, what was misshapen?
    The protein
  3. These proteins serve as tunnels through the plasma membrane
  4. These proteins attach to the cytoskeleton
  5. Chemical messengers, called hormones, would attach to these proteins
  6. These proteins have binding sites that can grab onto specific molecules on one side of the membrane, change shape, and move the molecule across the membrane.
  7. These proteins identify "friend or foe" self or invader
  8. Fatty Acid
  9. Hydrophilic
  10. Negative Charge
  11. Hydrophobic
  12. Phosphate Group
  13. No Charge
  14. Nonpolar
  15. Polar
  16. A network of material that is secreted from the cells and forms a complex meshwork outside of cells.
    Extra Cellular Matrix
  17. The biomembrane that separates the internal contents of the cell from its external environment.
    Plasma Membrane
  18. A network of membranes that includes the nuclear membrane (envelope), endoplasmic reticula, Golgi, lysosomes, vacuoles, etc...
    Endomembrane System
  19. Decrease in useful energy
    Second Law of Thermodynamics
  20. Increase in entropy
    Second Law of Thermodynamics
  21. Energy cannot be created or destroyed (in a closed system)
    First Law of Thermodynamics
  22. Light
    Kinetic Energy
  23. The Chemical Bonds in ATP molecules
    Potential Energy
  24. Osmosis is the diffusion across a selectively-permeable membrane of what?
  25. Define Energy
    The Ability or Capacity to do work
  26. The First Law of Thermodynamics
    Energy that can not be created or destroyed
  27. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    Entropy (chaos, randomness) is increasing
  28. Law of Conservation of Energy
    First Law of Thermodynamics
  29. Explains inefficiency
    Second Law of Thermodynamics
  30. Gasoline in a gas can
    Potential Energy
  31. A child running
    Kinetic Energy
  32. When the rock is at the top of the cliff it is?
    Potential Energy
  33. When the rock is pushed off the cliff it is?
    Kinetic Energy
  34. The litle tiny push that pushes the rock off the cliff is?
    Activation Energy
  35. Peptides join into aggregations, due to hydrogen bonding
    Quaternary Structure of Proteins
  36. A helix or a pleated sheet may be formed, due to hydrogen bonding
    Secondary Structure of Proteins
  37. Disulfide bridges form between amino acids causing folding of the molecule
    Tertiary Structure of Proteins
  38. The sequence of amino acids, held together by peptide bonds
    Primary Structure of Proteins
  39. State 6 facts about Enzymes:
    • - are biological catalysts
    • - are usually proteins of some sort
    • - are like a complex 3 dimensional puzzle piece that can change shape
    • - lower activation energy
    • - speed up chemical reactions
    • - allow chemical reactions to occur at lower temperatures
    • - at the endo of the chemical reaction are unchanged and recycled
  40. Define Activation Energy:
    It is the amount of energy (kinetic) needed to jumpstart a chemical reaction; in a chemical reaction, the energy needed to force the electron shells of the reactants together.
  41. Define Substrate:
    The substance that the enzyme attaches to, the reactant or reactants in the chemical reaction
  42. Define Active Site:
    • The physical region where the enzyme binds substrates
    • - the active site of each enzyme is different, like a key to a door
  43. 6CO2+6H2O+energy (sunlight)--->C6H12O6+6O2
    Is this equation Endergonic or Exergonic?
  44. 6CO2+6H2O+energy (sunlight)--->C6H12O6+6O2

    Which part of this equation is the reactants?
  45. 6CO2+6H2O+energy (sunlight)--->C6H12O6+6O2

    Which part of the equation are the products?
    6CO2+6H2O+energy (sunlight)
  46. Photosynthesis occurs in which organelle?
    The Chloroplast
  47. Photosystem II and Photosystem I together are the________ and take place in the ________.
    Light Dependent

  48. The reaction of the Calvin/ C-3 cycle are the _______ and take place in the _______.
    Light Independent

  49. What molecule is split apart to make the oxygen that you breathe?
  50. What atom is fixed in photosynthesis?
  51. The Light-Dependent reactions produce what?
    ATP + NADPH + O2
  52. The Light-Independent reactions produce what?
  53. The equation for Respiration which is Exergonic is _______
    6CO2 +6H2O + energy (36 or 38 ATP) <--- C6H12O6+6O2
  54. How many ATP are produced by the Krebs/ citric acid cycle?
    2 ATP
  55. How many ATP are produced by the ETC?
    32 or 34 ATP
  56. Where does glycoysis occur?
  57. What enters the Krebs Cycle/ Citric Acid Cycle?
    Acetylcoenzyme A
  58. What enters glycolysis?
  59. Spins rapidly as hydrogen ions pass through it; P is added to ADP
    ATP synthase
  60. Uses NADH, pumps hydrogen ions
    Complex I
  61. The gain of one or more electrons (or hydrogen atoms) by an atom, ion, or molecule.
  62. Does not pump hydrogen ions
    Complex II
  63. The production of ATP using energy derived from the transfer of electrons in the electron transport system of the mitochondria; occurs during chemiosmosis
    Oxidative Phosphorylation
  64. The energy stored in glucose is released bit-by-bit and used to attach phosphate groups to ADP (phosphorylation) making ______
  65. The first step in the metabolism of glucose is anaerobic. This means no ________ is needed.
  66. Glucose is split into 2 molecules of pyruvate (or pyruvic acid). This is called _______
  67. If oxygen is present, more energy is extracted from pyruvate in the "energy plant" or "powerhouse" of the cell, the _______
  68. In the matrix of the mitochondrion, pyruvate is broken down to a two-carbon molecue, Acetylcoenzyme A, and _______ (2 molecules altogether) is released. ( you will exhale this.) And 2 NADH.
    CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
Card Set