CH 281 Chapter 1

  1. Adaptations
    Characteristic that helps an organism survive longer or reproduce more under a particular set of environmental conditions.
  2. Alternative Hypotheses
    An explanation of an obseved phenomenon that is different form the explantion being tested.
  3. Applied Research
    Research conducted with the goal of solving specific practical problems.
  4. Artificial Selection
    Selective breeding of organisums to ensure that certain desirable traits appear at higher frequency in successive generations.
  5. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
    The primary agent that couples exergonic and endergonic reactions.
  6. Biological Evolution
    The process by which some individuals in a population experience changes in their DNA and pass those modied instructions to their offspring.
  7. Biosphere
    All regions of Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere tha sustain life.
  8. Cell
    Smallest Unit with the capacity to live and reproduce.
  9. Cellular Respiration
    The process by which energy-rich molecules are broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP.
  10. Class
    A Linnaean Taxonormic Category that ranks below a phylum and above an order.
  11. Community
    Populations of all species that occupy the same area.
  12. Consumers
    An organisum that consumes other organisums in a community or ecosystem.
  13. Control
    Treatment that tells what would be seen in absense of the experiemtnal manipulation.
  14. Decomposers
    A small organisum, such as a bacterium or fungus, that fees on the remains of dead organisums, breaking down complex biological molecules or structures into simpler raw materials.
  15. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    The large, double-stranded, helical molecule that contains the genetic material of all living organisms.
  16. Development
    A series of programmed changes encoded in DNA, through which a fertilized egg divides in to many cells that ultimately are transformed into and adult, which is itself capable of reproductions.
  17. Domain
    In Protein structure, a distinct, large structural subdivision produced in many proteins by the folding of the amino acid chain. In systematics, the highest taxonomic category; a group of cellular organisms with characteristics that set it apat as a major branch of the evolutionary tree.
  18. Ecosystem
    Group of biological community interacting with their enviroments.
  19. Emergent Property
    Characteristic that depends on the level of organizations of matter, but does not exist at lower levels of organisums.
  20. Eukaryotes
    Organism in which the DNA is enclosed in a nucleus.
  21. Experimental Data
    Information that describes the result of a careful manipulation of the system under study.
  22. Experimental Variable
    The variable in a scientific study that is manipulated by the experimenter.
  23. Family
    A Linnaean taxonomic category that ranks below an order and above a genus.
  24. Genus
    A Linnaean Taxonomic category ranking below a family and above a species.
  25. Homeostasis
    A steady internal condition maintained by responses that compensate for changes in the external enviroment.
  26. Hypothesis
    A teneative explantaion for an obseravation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.
  27. Inheritance
    The Transimission of DNA (that is, genetic information) from on gerneration to the next.
  28. Kingdom
    A linnaean taxomic category that Ranks below a domain and above a phylum.
  29. Life Cycle
    The sequential stages through which individuals develop, grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce.
  30. Metobolism
    The biochemical reactions that allow a cell or organisum to extract energy from it's surroundings and use that energy to maintain itself, grow, and reproduce.
  31. Model Organisms
    An organism with Characteristics that makw it particularly useful subject of research becasue it is likely to produce results widely applicable to other organisms.
  32. Multicellular Organisms
    Individual consisting of interdependent cells.
  33. Mutations
    A spontaneouss and heritable change in DNA.
  34. Natural Selection
    The evoultionary by which alleles that increase the likelihood of survival and the reproductive output of the individual s that carry them become more common in subsequent generations.
  35. Null Hypothesis
    A statement of what would be seen if the hyptohesis being testd were wrong.
  36. Observational Data
    Basic information on biologiacal structures or the details of biological processes.
  37. Order
    A linnaean taxomic category that Ranks above a family and below a class.
  38. Organelles
    The nucleus and other specialized interal structures and compartments of eukaryotic.
  39. Photosyntheisis
    The conversion of light energy to chemical energy in the form of sugar and other organic molecules.
  40. Phylum
    A major linnaean division of a kingdom, ranking above all classes.
  41. Population
    All the individuals of a single species that live tohether in the same place and time.
  42. Predictions
    A statement about what the reseacher expects to happen to one variable if another variable changes.
  43. Primary Producer
    An autotrop, usually a photosynthetic organism, a member of the first trophic level.
  44. Prokaryote
    Organism in which the DNA is suspended in the cell interior without separation from other cellular components by a discrete membrane.
  45. Protein
    Molecules that carry out most of life incuding the synthesis of all other biological molecules. A protein consists of one or more polypeptides depending on the protein.
  46. Replicates
    Mutilple subjects that recieve either the same exoertamental treatment or the same control treatment.
  47. Reproduction
    The process in which parents producee offspring.
  48. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    A polymer assemled from repeating nucleotide monomers in which the five-carbon sugar is ribose. Cellular RNA include mRNA (which is translated to produce a polypeptide), tRNA(which brings amino acid to the ribosome for assembly into a polypeptide during translation), and RNA (which is a structural component of ribosomes). The genetic material of some viruses is RNA
  49. Scientific Method
    A broadly applocable idea or hypothesis that has been confirmed by every conceivable test.
  50. Scientific Name
    A two-part name identifying the genus to thich a species belongs and designating a particulat species within that genus.
  51. Unicellular Organisms
    Individual consisting of a single cell.
  52. Variables
    An environmental factor that may differ among places or an organisum characteristic that may differ among individuals.
  53. The "Protists"
  54. The Kingdom Plantae
    The taxonomic kingdom encompassing all living or extinct plants.
  55. The Kingdom Fungi
    The taxonomic kingdom encompassing all living or extinct fungi.
  56. The Kingdom Animalia
    The Taxonomic kingdom that includes all living or extinct animals.
Card Set
CH 281 Chapter 1
vocab for chapter 1 ch 281