History of Rock

  1. British isles
    • england
    • scotland
  2. What type of music were the "lower class" listening to in the british isles?
    folk music - music that tells stories
  3. Native instruments to the british isles
    • Guitar-spanish
    • Fiddle-irish
    • Banjo-niggers in the appalacian region
    • Mandolin-italian
    • Dulcimer-german
  4. "Barbara Allen"
    • folk ballad about love and death
    • pentatonic major
    • strophic
    • acopello
    • *what the lower class might listen to
  5. Strophic-
  6. having several stanzas, sung to the same melody
  7. Ballad
    simple song with lyrics that tell a story
  8. "Old Joe Clark"
    • up tempo jig played by a fiddler
    • this is considered one of the first country music recordings
    • Is an example that combines song & dance
    • Banjo & fiddle
    • *lower class music
  9. Urban middle and upper classes
    • classical music (most sophisticated)
    • "popular song" music for social dancing, patriotic
    • hymns/church music
  10. Parlour song
    • most popular 19th century genre, told sentimental stories, set to simple melodies with modest accompaniment, written for in home performance by amateur musicians
    • Example: "Woodman, Spare the Tree"
  11. "Woodman, Spare the Tree"
    • Henry Russell - english song writer/singer/pianist
    • Creates a new style by arranging folk music with classical music
    • Transforms a "folk style" into commercial music
  12. Santeria:
    • the adaptation of Yoruba religious practices by cuban descendants of slaves
    • "way of the saints"
  13. "Song for Odudua"
    • minor pentatonic scale
    • call and response
    • unison group vocals
    • prominent percussion; polyrhythmic patterns
    • syncopation in the drums
  14. Harmony: Urban european/west african folk-
    chords/no chords
  15. Instrumental: urban european/west af. folk-
    chordal instrumental (piano)/percussion instruments, plucked instruments
  16. Melod: european/west africa
    long flowing melodies/short phrases connected by long notes
  17. Minstrel Shows:
    • Americanentertainment originating in the 1830s Consisted of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, & music performed by whites in blackface
    • Shows parodied nigs in a negative way
    • First american popular music genre
  18. Combining nig and european musical traditions:
    2 qualities of this "new" music:
    • 1. an irreverent attitude that had little tolerance for the airs of genteel society
    • 2. a vibrant new sound synthesized from both african music and european traditions
  19. Syncopation was introduced into:
    • the cakewalk
    • the coon song
  20. the cakewalk:
    a social dance fad borrowed from the minstrel show
  21. the coon song
    a genre of popular in the US from the 1880s to 1920, that presented a racist and stereotyped image of nigs
  22. Ragtime:
    • caught around 1900, a more sophisticated style; mainly piano compositions
    • any music with a hint of syncopation
    • first instance of nig interpretation of white music
  23. Scott Joplin
    • one of te most important "rag" composers; his "rags" were basically black interpretations of the european march
    • performed on the piano
  24. "maple leaf rag"
    • Scott joplin
    • syncopation
    • dance music, turkey trot, monkey glide...
  25. Early Blue
    turn of the century, early teens and twenties
  26. Early blues appeared in three ways:
    • 1. As popular songs and dance music EX: "st. louis blues" very basic melody
    • 2.Jazz bands followed with instrumental blues
    • 3. In the 1920s record companies began to record black blues singers. "classicblues" "empty bed blues" bessie smith
  27. The empress of the blues-
    Bessie smith
  28. Race Records
    • recordings featured nig performers and marketed mainly to the nig community
    • Recordings by nigs for nigs
  29. Trixie Smith
    a classic blues singer release a song in 1922 called "my man rocks me (with one steady roll)" first lyrical mention of rock and roll
  30. Jazz
    • took shape in new orleans
    • reshaped pop music 1920 were the jazz age
  31. Early jazz instruments:
    • Cornet
    • Clarinet
    • Trombone
    • Tuba
    • Drums
    • Banjo
    • Piano
    • all marching band instuments + 2 chordal inst.
  32. "Dippermouth Blues"
    • jazz
    • king olivers creole jazz band
    • adaptation of blues style
    • formation of the rhythmic section
    • instrumental improvision
    • use of riffs
    • broad use of syncopation
  33. Foxtrot
    • pop. song created for singing and dancing
    • tin pan alley songs
  34. Tin Pan Alley-
    refers to the collection of NYC music publishers and songwriters who dominated the pop music
  35. Country blues
    new to recording, became a viable niche in the recording industry
  36. Blind Lemon Johnson
    first major country blues singer to record under paramount records in the late 1920s
  37. "Come on in my kitrchen"
    • robert johnson 1937
    • use of vibrato in voice and guitar
    • lazy shuffle rhythm (long short pattern of eighth note pulse)
    • static harmony (distinct to nig music)
    • rough edges to voice/guitar sound
  38. Hokum:
    • An upbeat, good humored, light hearted novelty blues style
    • Featured more bluesy sounding singers than the pop/jazz artist; not as emotionally charged or raw as Bessy Smith or the country blues singers
    • Typical instrumentation
    • Singer with piano or guitar accompaniment
  39. Example of hokum:
    "its tight like that" - Tampa red and Georgia Tom
  40. Boogie-Woogie
    • an up tempo blues piano style emerging in the 20s
    • pop. in cities north of delta, in night clubs and bars
    • associated with dancing
    • strong 4 beat shuffle rhythm, repeated riffs
  41. Example of boogie woogie
    • "pine tops boogie woogie"
    • "roll em pete"
  42. Swing and jump bands "big band swing"
    • black dance orchestras(fletcher henderson, duke ellington)
    • rhythm section, 4 trumpets, 4 bones, 5 saxaphones
    • energetic new dance music
    • more syncopated and faster than the previous fox trot style sound
    • moved pop music closer to rock
  43. Jump bands
    • stripped down big band swing with a stronger beat and even more riffs
    • bluesy vocal style

    "choo choo ch boogie" louis jordan
  44. Black Gospel music
    • blends white protestant hymns, the black spiritual, and more fervent religious music with the blues
    • Thomas A. Dorsey, the father of gospel music
  45. 2 main performance traditions in black gospel music
    • male quartets
    • female solo singers
  46. Male Quartets
    valuable because they could sing complete harmonies adding the low and middle registers; no need for accompanying instruments
  47. A capella
    singing without instrumental accompaniment
  48. Hammond Organ
    • invented in the 30s, very common in nigger gospel
    • blues tinged harmony
  49. rhythm and blues trerm was suggested by:
    jerry wexler in 1949
  50. 4 main factors on why rhythm and blues became more popular
    • 1. economic/social empowerment of nigs
    • 2. media revolution
    • 3. growing interest in whites of nig music
    • 4. crossover appealof the music itself
  51. 2. media revolution
    new recording formats, emergence of commercial tv
  52. the range of rhythm and blues
    • 1. up tempo good time blues style with a strong beat and or backbeat
    • 2. electric blues
    • 3. the intro. to gospel vocal styles into pop singing and a gospel type approach to popular song
    • 4. the incorporation of latin rhythms and instruments
  53. what did rock take from the electric blues?
    chuck beery adapted basic blues band instrumentation -prominent lead guitar, second chordal instrument bass and drums to influence his type of R&R
  54. "Im your hoochie coochie man"
    • muddy waters
    • biggest hit by them
    • waters takes notes and riffs directly from the country blues of the 30s
    • slow strong shuffle rhythm
  55. latin influences:
    • they were used increasingly as an alternative to rock and shuffle rhythms in a wide range of r&b styles
    • genereally richer and more complex than the straightforward timekeeping of rock and roll
  56. afro cuban influence
    • clave rhythm 3+2 or 2+3
    • a rhythmic layer that moves twice as fast as the beat
  57. "mardi gras in new orleans"
    • fats domino 1953
    • clave rhythm played on claves
    • dense, active rhythms that create complex patterns
    • blues form
  58. Bo diddley
    • inducted in to the rock and roll hall of fame
    • identical to the clave pattern
    • use of maracas in addition to blues band instrumentation
  59. 2 gospel influenced r&b styles of the 50s:
    • 1. doo wop
    • 2. gospel influenced solo singing
  60. Doo wop:
    • the most popular kind of 50s rhythm and blues
    • scat singing
    • use of non sense syllables
    • voices become instruments
    • influenced by male gospel quartets
  61. scat singing:
    the practice of using the voice to imitate instruments
  62. The platters:
    most popular doo wop group
  63. up tempo doo wop:
    • applied nig gospel style to jump band r&b
    • "Sh-boom"- the chords; 1st doowop song to cross over the pop charts
  64. slow doowop:
    • applied nig gospel style to pop ballads
    • "i only have eyes for you" the flamingos
    • gospel influenced
    • nonsense vocal riff
    • static harmony
  65. Sam Cooke
    • "you send me"
    • melismas taken directly from gospel music
  66. ray charles
    first started mixing rhythmic r&b with the most honest gospel singing and gives it an updated sound
  67. "Whatd i say"
    • ray charles
    • only top 10 hit from the 50's, over 6 min.
    • americanized latin rhythm
    • merger of happy blues with ecstatic gospel style
  68. Charles influence
    • his work in late 50s merging gospel and rhthym and blues
    • set a musical example that led nig musicians to soul and inspired many white musicians along the way
  69. rockabilly
    • "a country mans song with a black mans rhythm
    • was the latest take in a long line of country takes on nig music
    • distinctly southern
  70. "Rock around the clock"
    • bill haley
    • 1st big rockabilly hit
    • lighter version of r&b, brisk tempo, shuffle beat
    • 12 bar blues
  71. "mystery train"
    • elvis
    • original by junior parker
  72. Sam Phillips started
    sun records
  73. Chuck Berry
    • the architect of rock and roll
    • "maybellene"-aggressive guitar sound
    • heavy backbeat
    • double stops
    • teen themed lyrics
  74. the everly brothers stand out for 2 reasons
    • 1. they continued rock and rolls country connection
    • 2. they popularized melodious song with a rock beat (precursor to soft rock)
  75. "All i have to do is dream"
    everly brothers
  76. Buddy Holly
    • he is the musical bridge between 50s rock and roll and 60s rock
    • opened up rock and roll to new sounds, forms, harmonies, and rhythms
Card Set
History of Rock