Chapter 15, Cardiovascular System, Part 2

  1. The T wave of an electrocardiogram represents which event?
    A)ventricular depolarization
    B)atrial repolarization
    C)ventricular repolarization
    D)atrial depolarization
    C)ventricular repolarization
  2. The central cardiac control region is in the _____ of the brain.
    B)medulla oblongata
    B)medulla oblongata
  3. The electrical initiation of a heartbeat begins in the _____ chamber wall.
    A)left ventricle
    B)right ventricle
    C)right atrium
    D)left atrium
    C)right atrium
  4. The last in the cardiac conduction sequence is the _____.
    A)SA node
    B)AV node
    C)AV bundle
    D)Purkinje fibers
    D)Purkinje fibers
  5. The first heart sound is caused by closure of the _____ valves.
    A)pulmonary semilunar
    C)aortic semilunar
  6. Cardiac output can be determined by the following formula:
    A)HR - SV
    B)HR divided by SV
    C)HR + SV
    D)HR x SV
    D)HR x SV
  7. Which structure contains the lowest amount of oxygen?
    A)pulmonary vein
    C)vena cava
    D)right ventricle
    C)vena cava
  8. The aortic semilunar valve prevents blood from returning to the _____.
    A)left ventricle
    C)right ventricle
    D)left atrium
    A)left ventricle
  9. The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents a back-flow of blood into the _____.
    A)pulmonary artery
    B)right ventricle
    C)left ventricle
    D)right atrium
    B)right ventricle
  10. The _____ valve lies between the right atrium and right ventricle.
    B)aortic semilunar
    C)pulmonary semilunar
  11. How many openings are in the right atrium?
  12. Which membrane is closest to the heart muscle?
    A)pericardial sac
    B)fibrous pericardium
    C)parietal pericardium
    D)visceral pericardium
    D)visceral pericardium
  13. The inability of the left ventricle to pump blood adequately to the body's cells is indicative of ________________.
    A)an embolus
    B)cardiac tamponade
    C)congestive heart failure
    C)congestive heart failure
  14. A unique venous system, called the ________________, carries blood directly from the intestines to the liver for processing rather than directly into the inferior vena cava.
    A)hepatic portal system
    B)superior mesenteric vein
    C)saphenous vein
    D)gonadal vein
    A)hepatic portal system
  15. Blood is drained from the face, scalp, and superficial regions of the neck by the _______________.
    A)carotid arteries
    B)external jugular veins
    C)internal jugular veins
    D)brachiocephalic veins
    B)external jugular veins
  16. A deep wound to the upper thigh might damage the _____________ artery.
    C)anterior tibial
  17. Which artery supplies blood to the ilium and muscles of the lower back?
    B)common iliac artery
    C)internal iliac artery
    D)iliolumbar artery
    D)iliolumbar artery
  18. What does the electrocardiogram (ECG) QRS wave indicate is happening in the heart?

    C) B)The ventricles are depolarizing while the atria repolarize.
  19. How does the impulse to contract slow down slightly before it is transferred into the ventricles?
    A)It makes a detour and travels to the brain and back.
    B)There is a parasympathetic brake on the AV node.
    C)Junctional fibers leading into the AV node have very small diameters.
    D)The skeleton of the heart prevents the impulse from being transmitted rapidly.
    C)Junctional fibers leading into the AV node have very small diameters.
  20. When do the A-V valves close during the cardiac cycle?
    A)when pressure inside the ventricles is at its lowest
    B)when pressure inside the atria is greater than that inside the ventricles
    C)when ventricular pressure exceeds that of the atria
    D)when pressure is greater in the aorta than in the left ventricle
    C)when ventricular pressure exceeds that of the atria
  21. Someone suffering a heart attack in his anterior lower right ventricle probably had a blockage in which coronary artery?
    A)anterior interventricular artery
    B)circumflex artery
    C)posterior interventricular artery
    D)marginal artery
    A)anterior interventricular artery
  22. Freshly oxygenated blood enters the heart through the ______________, and is pumped out the _____________.
    A)right atrium; aorta
    B)left atrium; aorta
    C)right ventricle; pulmonary arteries
    D)left ventricle; pulmonary arteries
    B)left atrium; aorta
  23. The _____________ has the thickest wall because it pumps blood to the ________________.
    A)right atrium; systemic circuit
    B)right ventricle; lungs
    C)left atrium; lungs
    D)left ventricle; systemic circuit
    D)left ventricle; systemic circuit
  24. The bicuspid valve __________________.
    A)is located on the left side of the heart
    B)guards the auricles of the heart
    C)guards the entrance to the aorta
    D)guards the entrance to the pulmonary trunk
    A)is located on the left side of the heart
  25. The layer of the heart that forms a smooth, protective lining of the heart chambers and valves is the _______________.
    D)parietal pericardium
  26. Which layer of the heart or pericardium serves the dual purpose of lining the pericardium and forming the outermost wall of the heart?
    A)fibrous pericardium
    B)parietal pericardium
    C)visceral pericardium (epicardium)
    C)visceral pericardium (epicardium)
  27. What is the thickest layer of the heart wall?
  28. In an ECG pattern, the P wave is caused by : depolarization of atrial muscle fibers.
    depolarization of atrial muscle fibers.
  29. The ________ pumps blood into the aorta, and the _________ receives blood from the vena cavae.
    left ventricle:right atrium
  30. What term is used to describe a slow heartbeat?
  31. The term for an abnormal heartbeat that exceeds 100 beats per minute?
  32. The membranous covering of the heart is the _________, which includes a loosely fitting sac composed of an inner ________ and an outer _________.
    pericardium; parietal pericardium; fibrous pericardium
  33. An increase in the frequency of sympathetic impulses to arteries and arterioles, produces ________, which ________ blood pressure and velocity.
    vasoconstriction; increases
  34. What supplies the heart with the blood it needs to function?
    the coronary circulation which recieves blood from the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery
  35. Where is the right coronary artery located? What are it's branches?
    apperars on the surface of the heart, originates from the aorta, between the pulmonary trunk and the right atria

    it's branches are marginal artery and posterior interventricular sulcus
  36. Where is the left coronary artery located? What are it's branches?
    apperars on the surface of the heart, originates from the aorta, between the pulmonary trunk and the left atria

    it's branches are circumflex artery and anterior interventricular sulcus
  37. What is anastomoes?
    a joining of vessels
  38. What is the function of mycardium having anastomoes?
    to provide alternate(collateral circulation) pathways if a blood vessel becomes obstructed
  39. The myocardium contains _________ fes by the branches of __________.
    capilleries: coronary artery
  40. What recieves the least amount of blood during a ventricular contraction?
  41. Where is most of the blood supplied to the myocardium returned?
    cardiac veins (run parallel to coronary arteries) to coronary sinus, to right atria
  42. What is a cardiac cycle? Simply terms
    The simultaneous contraction of both atria, followed by th simultaneous contraction of both ventricles and finally relaxation of the heart
  43. Diastole means
  44. Systole means
  45. What happens during atrial diastole?
    atria fill with blood
  46. When are atrial valves open?
    during atrial systole
  47. When are the semilunar valves closed and AV valves open?
    During ventrical diastole
  48. What causes the AV valves to open?
    When atrial pressure is greater than ventricular pressure
  49. Most blood flows passively from atria to ventricles, but all blood going to the atreries is actively pumped by the ventricles.


  50. What causes the sound of the heartbeat?
    heart valves closing
  51. What causes the first cardiac sound(Lubb)?
    AV valves closing
  52. What causes the second cardiac sound(Dupp)?
    the semilunar valves closing
  53. Where can the mitral and tricuspid valves be heard clearly?
    • Mitral-5th intercostal space, left of the nipple
    • Tricuspid valve- 5th intercostal space, right of the sternum
  54. Where can the semilunar valves be heard clearly?
    aortic- 2nd intercostal space, right

    pulmonic- 2nd intercostal space left
  55. What is a murmur?
    abnormal heart sound caused by valvular issues
  56. What are the two functional syncytiums of the heart?
    atrial syncytium

    ventricular syncytium
  57. What is the function of the functional syncytium?
    If any part of the syncytium is stimulated, whole structure contracts as a unit
  58. What seperates the atrial and ventricular syncytium?
    the fibrous skeleton, except for a small region on the inferior portion of the right atria
  59. What is the pacemaker of the heart?
    SA node(Sinoartial)
  60. Where is the SA node located?
    posterior wall of right atria just below the opening of the superior vena cava, beneath the epicardium
  61. What is the function of the SA node?
    Establish heart rate
  62. Where does the SA node send the impulse?
    AV node
  63. Describe the structure and function of an AV node?
    small diameters, causes impulse delay which allows atiria to complete their contraction and empty all the blood into the ventricles before the ventricles contract
  64. The atrioventricular node is the only normal conduction pathway between atrial and ventricular syncytia.


  65. When does the AV node send the impulse to?
    AV bundle
  66. Where is the AV bundle located?
    Superior portion of the Interventricular septum
  67. Describe the structuer of the AV bundle.
    Located Superior portion of the Interventricular septum and breaks off into right and left branches, which extend towards the apex of the heart in the interventricular septum
  68. Where do the AV bundles transmit the impulses to?
    Purkinje fibers
  69. What is the structre of purkinje fibers?
    large fibers, barrel shaped, contain myofibrils(located in the endocardium)
  70. What is the function of purkinje fibers?
    transmit impulses quickly to the ventricular walls and complete the conduction pathway
  71. How are ventricular muscle fibers arranged and what type of movement does that cause?
    Whorls, twisting motion
  72. What is an EKG/ECG?
    graphic representation of the cardiac cycle, or electrical changes in the myocardium as it contracts and relaxes
  73. What is occuring during a P wave?
    Atrial depolarization
  74. What occurs during QRS complex?
    Ventricular depolarization
  75. What occurs during T wave?
    Ventricular repolarization
  76. Why doesn't atrial repolarization appeat as a separate wave?
    Beacuse it is masked by the QRS complex
  77. What is a baseline?
    no detectable electrical changes, heart is returning to polarized state
  78. What nodes are inervated by the autonomic nervous system?
    AV and SA nodes
  79. What is the pathway for the parasympathetic impulses?
    medulla oblongata, vagus nerves, SA and AV nodes
  80. What neurotransmitter does the parasympathetic impulse cause to be realsed and what effect does it have on the heart?
    Acetylcholine; decreases heart rate
  81. What is the pathway for the sympathetic impulses?
    medulla oblongata, accelerator nerves, SA and AV nodes
  82. What neurotransmitter does the sympathetic impulse cause to be realsed and what effect does it have on the heart?
    Norepinephrine; Increases heart rate and the force of the myocardial contraction
  83. What part of the brain maintains a balance between the parasympathetic and the symapathetic impulses?
    The cardiac control center of the medulla oblongata
  84. What are baroreceptors(pressoreceptors)?Where are they located?
    used to detect changes in blood pressure and send info to the control center of the medulla oblongata, they are located in the aorta and cartoin arteies
  85. Factors that influenced heart rate.
    Emotions, Exercise, Body temperature, Ion concentration
  86. Blood vessels that form a closed circiut of tubes that carry blood from the heart to the body tissues and then return the blood to the heart.
    Vascular System
  87. 3 Layers of an artery
    Tunica Interna

    Tunica Media

    Tunica Externa
  88. What Tunica is present in all types of blood vessels?
    Tunica Interna
  89. What Tunica of the artery has smooth endothelium to prevent blood clotting and secreate biochemicals to inhibit aggregation.
    Tunica Interna
  90. Which Tunica of the artery is the extension of the endocardial lining of the heart?
    Tunica Interna
  91. What is only found in Arteries and seperates Tunica Interna from Tunica Media?
    Internal Elastic Lamina
  92. What Layer of an artery has Fenstrae to nourish underlying cells and a crinckled apperance?
    Internal Elastic Lamina
  93. What is the thickest layer of Tunica of the artery?
    Tunica Media
  94. Which layer of Tunica of the artery consist of smooth muscle fibers and thick layer of elastic CT?
    Tunica Media
  95. What layer of Tunica of the artery is composed of elastin?
    Internal Elastic Lamina
  96. What Tunica of the artery gives rise to minute vessels that give rise to capilleries that provide blood to external cells of the atrial wall?
    Tunica Externa
  97. Which Tunica of the artery contains Vasa Vasorum(Vessel of Vessels)?
    Tunica Externa
  98. Which Tunica of the artery is a thin layer and consists of elastic and collegan fibers?
    Tunica Externa
  99. What are the characteristics of an artery?
    Elastcity and contractility
  100. Which Tunica of the artery is intervated by the sympathetic nervous system?
    Tunica Media
  101. What does Vasoconstriction mean?
    Reduction in the diameter of the blood vessels
  102. What does Vasodilation mean?
    Increase in the diameter of the blood vessel
Card Set
Chapter 15, Cardiovascular System, Part 2
Chapter 15, Cardiovascular System, Anatomy and Physiology