Nursing 1

  1. Epidemiology Triad
    • Agent factors
    • Host factors
    • Environmental factors
  2. Etiologic Agents
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Fungi
    • Prions
    • Can also be a noninfectious agent
  3. Susceptible Host
    • Able to be infected by a pathogen
    • May be affected by both pathogen and host characteristics
    • Previous exposure to the microorganism may result in immunity
    • Immunizations may provide immunity
  4. Environmental Factors
    • Influences the interaction between the agent and the host.
    • Physical
    • Biological
    • Social
  5. Chain of Infection
    • Pathogen - microorganism that causes disease
    • Reservoir - sources of microganisms
    • Portal of exit - means by which microbe leaves the reservoir
    • Mode of transmission - means by which microbe reaches host
    • Portal of entry - means by which the microbe enters the host
    • Susceptible host - any person who is at risk for infection.
  6. Direct Transmission
    Involves immediate and direct transfer of microorganisms
  7. Indirect Transmission
    May be either vehicle-borne or vector-borne
  8. Vehicle-borne Transmission (indirect)
    Any substance that serves as an intermediate means to transport and introduce an infectious agent into a susceptible host through a suitable portal of entry
  9. Vector-borne Transmission (indirect)
    An animal or insect that serves as an intermediate means of transporting the infectious agent
  10. Airborne Transmission
    May involve droplets or dust
  11. Contact Transmission Precautions
    • Standard precautions
    • Private room
    • Gloves
    • Gown
    • Don't bring items in and out of room
    • MRSA
  12. Droplet Transmission Precautions
    • Used for clients known to have or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by particle droplets larger than 5 microns:
    • Standard precautions
    • Private room
    • Mask if within 3 feet of patient
    • Surgical mask on patient if they are being transported outside of room
  13. Airborne Transmission Precautions
    • Used for clients known to have or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns
    • Standard precautions
    • Private room
    • Respiratory device (TB mask) for TB patients, measles or varicella patients
    • Place surgical mask on patient if they are being transported ouside of room
  14. Standard Precautions
    • Handwashing
    • Use of Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)
    • Soiled linens
    • Sharps
  15. Primary Prevention
    • Targets the agent, reservoir, host, or environment
    • Involves education to increase knowledge
    • Examples: immunizations, proper handwashing, needle exchange programs, proper cooking of
    • foods
  16. Secondary Prevention
    • Screening & diagnosis to initiate early treatment
    • Examples: TB, Colon CA screening
  17. Tertiary Prevention
    • Prevention of a recurrence of the disease
    • Host oriented
    • May be applied to contacts: those who have been in contact with the infected patient
    • CVA prevention
  18. Preventative Care
    • Health Education
    • Screening
  19. Prevention of Sharps Injuries
    • Never recap needles
    • Place needles or “sharps” in rigid containers at the point of use
    • Use needle-less systems
    • Replace in-room sharps containers when full
  20. Biohazardous Materials Disposal
    • Red bags
    • Sharps disposal
    • Gloves
    • Masks
    • Eye protection
    • Spill kits
  21. Fire Safety R.A.C.E.
    • Remove the patient from danger
    • Activate the fire alarm system
    • Confine the fire; close doors
    • Extinguish the fire; Evacuate if directed to do so
  22. Fire Safety P.A.S.S.
    • Pull pin
    • Aim at base of fire
    • Squeeze trigger
    • Sweep base of fire
    • Turn off wall oxygen at cut off valves in the hall
  23. Chemical, Radiation and Other Hazardous Materials
    Avoid medical radiation exposure; leave the room or wear lead apron. Do not help with x-rays without lead apron!
  24. Hazardous Material Data Sheets (MDS)
    Available on all units; Provide workers and emergency personnel with information about the proper procedures for handling or working with a particular substance/chemical; also; what to do if exposure accidentally occurs; washing; antidotes etc.
  25. Electrical Safety
    • Keep patient and bed linens dry
    • Use only grounded electrical devices
    • Check cords for fraying
    • Don’t use extension cords
    • How do you pull out a plug from an outlet?
    • Report loose or frayed cords or broken receptacles
    • Send equipment to engineering department for assessment
    • and repair
  26. Preventing Falls
    • Side rails up x 2 for bed mobility. (Not x4 which is considered a restraint and would place confused patient at greater risk of falls if they try to climb over them.)
    • Bed in low position
    • Ensure adequate lighting
    • Remove obstacles, unnecessary equipment
    • Reduce bathroom hazards
    • Pay attention to mental status and weakness
Card Set
Nursing 1
Unit 1A: Content outline