1. Photosynthesis
    The manufacture of carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll, utilizing light energy and releasing oxygen.
  2. Respiration
    A chemical oxidation process whereby living protoplasm breaks down certain organic substances with the release of energy, which is used in various anabolic activities, movements, etc.
  3. Water
    Its very important for plant growth
  4. Transpiration
    The emission of water vapor from aerial parts of plants, mainly through the stomata.
  5. Guttation
    Loss of water from turgid plant leaves
  6. Wilting
    Plants begin to wilt when the rate of water loss by transpiration is greater than the rate of water absorption. As the volume of water in the plant is reduced, the leaves become soft of flaccid.
  7. Chlorophyll
    A green pigment which occurs chiefly in chloroplasts and is involved in photosynthesis
  8. Dessication
    Drying out
  9. Epidermis
    Suface layer
  10. Flaccid
    Soft, wilted
  11. Meristemic
    Actively growing tissue of a plant.
  12. Monocots
    Leaves with parallel veins, Stems reach a certain diameter and do not continue to grow, Stem fibers or vascular bundles are scattered, not in concentric circles, not bark present, Floral parts arranged in threes or multiples of threes; examples: Grasses, corn, wheat, onion family
  13. Dicots
    Leaves with netted veins, Stems continue to grow in diameter as long as plant lives, Stem fibers or vascular bundles arranged in concentric circles. Bark develops and can be easily stripped from the remainder of the plant, floral parts number varies, rarely in threes or multiple of threes. Examples: Trees, shrubs, beans, peas, and many small plants
  14. Annual
    A plant that comletes its life cycle in one year or season
  15. Biennial
    A plant which complets its life cycle in two years or growing seasons. It produces vegtable growth the first year and produces seed and dies in the second year.
  16. Perennial
    A plant which lives from year to year indefinitley.
  17. Leaf
    A lateral outgrowth of the stem, typically a thin, expanded structure which is usually green in color.
  18. Blade
    Expanded, broad portion
  19. Petiole
    Stalk (sometimes missing)
  20. Base
    Part that joins leaf to the stem
  21. Stipules
    Scalelike outgrowths, rarely bladelike, which frequently drop when leaf matures
  22. Stomata
    Small oval openings found mostly on the lower leaf surface or epidermis. Each stoma is surrounded by two kidney shaped cells call guard cells. Stomata alows the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells in the interior of the leaf and the external atmosphere as well as the movement of water vapor from with the leaf
  23. Phloem
    Outer layer of conducting cells which transport metabolized food through the plant.
  24. Xylem
    Portion nearest the center of stem containing thick-walled cells which carry water or salts(plant nutrients) through the plant
  25. Cambium
    Thin layer of cells seperating phloem from xylem. The cambium is the growing portion of the plant which forms cells for both the xylem and phloem
  26. Bark
    • Stem region outside phloem which protects phloem, cambium, and inner tissue from disease organisms or evaporation.
    • Functions include: Support for leaves, flower and fruit, transports water and minerals from roots to leaves and other plant organs, conducts manufactured food from leaves to other parts of the plant
  27. Root
    • Inground portion of plant, structure contains midified cells, many of which are similar to those found in the stem
    • Functions include: Absorbs water and nutrients from the soil and translocates to the upper plant parts, supports the plant, and stores food
  28. Translocation
    The movement of food materials through the plant, it can be the movement of any material within the plant
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