Chapter 29

  1. What are the four types of plant tissues?
    • dermal
    • vascular
    • ground
    • meristematic
  2. What does dermal mean?
  3. What are the two types of dermal tissues?
    • Epidemis
    • Cork
  4. What do epidermis cells do?
    • secrete the cuticle (wax) to prevent desication
    • protects plant from fungus, viruses, and bacteria
  5. Where are epidermis cells at?
    on the outside of the plant
  6. Are epidermis living or nonliving?
  7. What dermal tissue is boxlike?
  8. What does cork do?
    • replaces epidermis in someolder areas of the plant
    • makes insulation for the plant
  9. Are the cork cells dead or alive?
  10. What are cork cells filled with?
  11. What plant part has the most cork?
  12. What are the vegatative organs of a plant?
    • roots
    • stems
    • leaves
  13. What are the two types of vascular tissue?
    • xylem
    • phloem
  14. What do xylem do?
    carry water and minerals
  15. What are the two types of xylem?
    • vessels
    • tracheids
  16. What plants have vessel xylem?
  17. What plants have tracheid xylem?
  18. What do phloem do?
    carry food
  19. What are the two types of phloem?
    • sieve tubes
    • companion cells
  20. How do companion cells help the sieve tubes?
    sieve tubes have no nucleus, but companion cells do
  21. What type of vascular tissue is dead when functioning?
  22. What type of vascular tissue is alive when functioning?
  23. What is ground tissue?
    fill in tissue
  24. What are the three types of ground tissue?
    • parenchyma
    • collenchyma
    • sclerenchyma
  25. Parenchyma
    • living
    • big thinwalled cells
    • store food and water
  26. Collenchyma
    • living
    • small with thicker walls
    • store and support/strengthen
  27. Schlerenchyma
    • fibers
    • dead
    • small with very thick walls
  28. What are the two types of meristematic tissue?
    • apical
    • lateral
  29. What are meristematic tissues capable of?
    cell division
  30. Where do all new cells form?
    meristematic tissue
  31. Where are apical meristems?
    tips of branches and roots
  32. What meristematic tissue is involved in primary growth?
    apical meristems
  33. What is primary growth?
    • When a plant part lengthens
    • ex. tips of branches and roots
  34. What are the two types of lateral meristems?
    • vascular cambium
    • cork cambium
  35. What does cork cambium do?
    makes more cork
  36. What does vascular cambium do?
    makes more xylem and phloem
  37. What is growth in diameter?
    secondary growth
  38. What meristematic tissue is involved in secondary growth?
    lateral meristems
  39. Where are lateral meristems?
    rings inside stems and roots
  40. What are the jobs of roots?
    • absorption
    • conduction
    • anchorage
    • storage
  41. What do roots absorb?
    water and minerals
  42. How do roots absorb water?
  43. How do roots absorb minerals?
    active transport (pumps)
  44. What are the two types of nutrients?
    macro and micro nutrients
  45. macronutrients
    • plants need a lot to be healthy
    • ex. nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous
  46. micronutrients
    • plants don't need as much of these to stay healthy
    • ex. copper, cobalt, iron
  47. What tissue is involved in absorption?
  48. What is conduction and what tissue does it involve?
    • carrying water and foor through the plant
    • vascular tissue
  49. What is anchorage?
    holds plants in the ground-support
  50. What is storage?
    food produced in leaves and other green parts are stored in the roots
  51. annual
    • 1 growing season-April, May-Sept.,Oct.
    • seeds survive for plants next year
    • ex. marigolds, zinnias, tomatoes
  52. biennial
    • 2 growing seasons
    • only seeds survive after the second season
    • ex. carrot
  53. perennial
    • lives many growing seasons-"bulbs"
    • ex. daffodils, crocuses, grass, roses, dandelions, crabgrass
  54. What is a a radicle?
    future root
  55. What is a primary root?
    first root out of the seed, secondary comes later
  56. What are the two types of root systems?
    • taproot
    • fibrous
  57. Where do taproots store food?
    primary root
  58. What root system do dicots have?
  59. examples of plants with taproot systems
    carrot, horseradish, beets
  60. What root system do monocots have?
  61. T/F all roots in a fibrous root system are the same size
  62. examples of plants with fibrous root systems
    corn, grasses
  63. What is the maturation region?
    fully grown and specialized region of the root tip
  64. What is the elongation region?
    growth is lengthening and specializing
  65. What are root hairs?
    extensions of the epidermal cells that provide surface area for water absorption
  66. What is a root cap made of?
    dead cells
  67. What are the modified specialized roots?
    • adventitious
    • aerial
    • naustoria
    • "knees"
    • aromatic
  68. What are adventitious roots?
    they grow from stems and leaves not from other roots
  69. What are the two types of adventitious roots?
    • prop
    • climbing
  70. Example of prop adventitious root
  71. Example of climbing adventitious root
  72. What are aerial roots?
    live in the tropical rainforeset because there is high humidity.
  73. Example of aerial stem?root?
  74. What are naustoria?
    roots on parasitic plants
  75. Example of naustoria?
  76. What are "knees"?
    roots in swamps that allow the roots to get air
  77. Where are "knees"?
    swamps, ex. Everglades
  78. Example of knees?
    bald cypress trees
  79. What are aromatic roots?
    roots we use as spices
  80. Example of aromatic roots?
    horseradish, sassafras
  81. What are the four jobs of stems?
    • support and display leaves
    • transport food and water
    • store food
    • photosynthesize
  82. T/F size of the pith in a woody dicot stem never changes.
  83. What is an example of an herbaceous monocot stem?
  84. What is an example of an herbaceous dicot stem?
    sunflower, tomato
  85. What is pith made of?
  86. What is always towards the outside, xylem or phloem?
  87. What is the epidermis for?
  88. What are the sclerenchyma layers for?
    support, they are nonliving
  89. What are characteristics of woody stems?
    inflexible, not green (brown/white), ex. bushes
  90. What are characteristics of herbaceous stems?
    green, flexible, ex. corn
  91. What are fibers for?
  92. What are the differences b/w monocot and dicot stems?
    • dicots have vascular cambium
    • dicot has cortex and pith, monocot just has pith
    • in dicot the fibrovascular bundles are in a ring, monocot ones are scattered
  93. What is the vascular cambium for?
    • makes more xylem and phloem
    • secondary growth
    • grows in diameter
  94. What is the cortex made of?
  95. What is bark made of?
  96. What is wood made of?
  97. What is an annual ring?
    Layer of spring and summer wood
  98. What does the cork cambium do?
    makes cork-meristematic tissue
  99. What is girdling?
    removing the bark around a tree in a ring
  100. Who girdled trees?
    the pioneers
  101. Why did girdling kill trees?
    it removes the phloem
  102. What are wood/pith rays?
    • "spokes" from pith to cortex
    • allows for sideways movement
  103. Where is the oldest xylem?
    next to the pith
  104. What is heartwood?
    • non-functioning xylem with clogged tubes
    • becomes storage area
    • darkens in color
  105. What is sapwood?
    • functioning xylem
    • lighter in color
  106. What is the terminal bud for?
    primary stem growth
  107. What are bud scales for?
    protection in the winter
  108. What represents one year of growth on a stem?
    distance from one bud scale scar to another
  109. What does an auxiliary bud have?
    embryonic leaves
  110. What is a leaf scar?
    where leaves previously were
  111. What is a bud scale scar?
    where bud scales were
  112. What are lenticels?
    holes in stem for gas exchange
  113. What can leaf scars be used for?
    used to ID plants through their leaf arrangements
  114. T/F embryonic flowers can be on a stem too
  115. What part of the root is are the bud scales like?
    root cap
  116. What plant hormone reforms bud scales?
  117. What are the three types of leaf arrangements?
    • alternate
    • opposite
    • whorled
  118. alternate leaf arrangement
    one leaf per node
  119. opposite leaf arrangement
    two leaves per node
  120. whorled leaf arrangement
    three or more leaves per node
  121. What are the three branching possibilities
    • columnar
    • deliquescent
    • excurrent
  122. columnar branching
    • ex. palm
    • due to apical dominance
  123. deliquescent branching
    ex. deciduous
  124. What are the types of modified stems?
    • tuber
    • corms
    • bulbs
  125. tuber
    • underground stem
    • the tuber stores food
    • ex. potato
    • "eyes" are nodes
  126. corms
    • underground stems
    • ex. crocuses, gladiolas, perennials
    • makes food for the stems
  127. bulbs
    • underground stems
    • ex. onions, tulips, lilies
    • most are not perennials
  128. What is the "paper" on an onion?
    underground leaves
  129. What is the new theory for water transportation called?
    transpiration-cohesion theory
  130. What did the old theory on water transportation say?
    • water goes into roots then is pushed up by the stem
    • gravity is a force
  131. Why was the old theory on water transportation discarded?
    they found out gravity is stronger than root pressure
  132. transpiration
    water evaporation from leaves
  133. cohesion
    • like molecules sticking together
    • b/w water molecules
  134. adhesion
    • unlike molecules sticking together
    • b/w water and vessel (xylem) walls
  135. capillarity
    the rising of water in narrow tubes
  136. What forces allow water to go to the top of the tree?
    capillarity, adhesion, cohesion, transpiration
  137. What does transpiration do for the plant?
    keeps the leaves cool so photosynthesis can occur
  138. trans-location
    occurs in phloem-sieve tubes
  139. source
    where food enters the sieve tubes by active transport
  140. sink
    where food leaves the sieve tubes for respiration or storage by diffusion
  141. What is plant food?
    • 10-25% sucrose in water
    • "sugar water"
  142. In the summer and autumn what is the source?
  143. In the summer and autumn what is the sink?
    • roots and stem
    • used for respiration or storage
    • if storage sucrose turns into starch
  144. In the fall what is the sink?
    • buds
    • use sucrose to grow
  145. In the fall what is the source?
    • roots and stem
    • starch turns back into sucrose and moves up the tree til leaves grow
  146. What to aphids do?
    • use plant juices as food
    • leave their nose in plant
  147. T/F inner wall of a guard cell is thicker than the outer wall
  148. what happens when the stoma is closed?
    water moves out
  149. What happens when the stoma is open?
    • water moves in
    • the outer wall bulges more and opens the stoma
    • when water moves in it gains turgor pressure
    • transports potassium by active transport
    • water and potassium leak out
  150. What are the type of modified leaves?
    • asexual reproduction
    • tendrils
    • spines
    • insectivorous
  151. asexual reproduction
    • Bryophyllum
    • makes baby leaves
  152. tendrils
    • mod. for climbing
    • ex. peas, grapevines
  153. spines
    • start out green, turn brown
    • mod. for protection
    • ex. roses, cactus
  154. insectivorous
    • eats insects
    • live in swamps/bogs
    • eat bugs for protein because they live in N deficient soil
  155. 3 kinds of insectivorous plants
    • venus flytrap
    • sundew-has hairs with "dew"-glue
    • pitcher plants-hairs that trap
Card Set
Chapter 29
plant parts or something.. i dont know