Princ. Pharm 1

  1. What is pharmacokinetics?
    the study how a drug moves into, through, and out of the body.
  2. What is pharmacodynamics?
    the study of how the drug actually produces its effects on the body. how the drug affects the function of the body.
  3. What does "to administer" a drug mean?
    getting the drug into the patient's body.
  4. When are drugs poisons, and when are poisons drugs?
    they are drugs when given in the correct dose (therapeutic range), correct route, and correct dosage interval. if OD-poison.
  5. Define therapeutic range
    ideal reange of drug blood level leading to maximum benefit and minimal detrimental effects.
  6. Define sub-therapeutic range
    drug concentration is too low to achieve maximum benefit. in antibiotics, can result in bacterial resistance. also, is a waste of time - could be using appropriate dose.
  7. Define toxic level
    drug blood concentration too high, causing detrimental affects, overdose, toxicity.
  8. Maximum effective concentration
    upper end of the therapeutic range.
  9. Minimum effective concentration
    lower end of the therapeutic range
  10. What is the goal of giving a patient medication?
    achieve therapeutic range for the correct length of time to benefit the patient the most.
  11. What are the 3 components of drug administration?
    dose, dosage interval route of administration
  12. What does “LD50” mean?
    lethal dose 50 - the dosage that will kill 50% of the patients.
  13. What does “ED50” mean?
    efficacy dose 50 - the dosage that produces the desired effect in 50% of the patients.
  14. What does “therapeutic index” mean, and how is it calculated?
    it is a measure of the margin of safety, or how easy it is to overdose a patient. LD50 ÷ ED50 = therapeutic index.
  15. If drug P has an LD50 of 50 mg/kg, and an ED50 of 25 mg/kg, what is drug P’s therapeutic index?
    50 mg/kg ÷ 25 mg/kg = 2
  16. If drug Q has an LD50 of 90 mg/lb, and an ED50 of 30 mg/lb, what is drug Q’s therapeutic index?
    90 mg/lb ÷ 30 mg/lb = 3
  17. Which is the safest drug – drug P or drug Q?
    drug Q – has a higher therapeutic index than drug P.
  18. What 4 main factors affect the concentration of a drug in the body?
    absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion.
  19. What are the 2 components of drug
    rate of absorption, amount absorbed.
  20. What is the main factor affecting rate of absorption?
    route of administration
  21. What are the 2 factors affecting amount of absorption?
    • dose, dosage
    • interval
  22. It doesn’t matter how we get a drug
    into a patient’s body, just so long as we get it in somehow – PO, IV, SQ, etc. –
    True or False?

  23. What are the 4 major routes of administration?
    oral, parenteral, topical, inhalation.
  24. What does “oral” route of administration mean?
    pills or liquid by mouth.
  25. Your patient “Fluffy” Smith had
    vomited several times today so far. She needs drug X, which can be given either PO or
    SQ. Which way should
    you administer drug X to “Fluffy”?
  26. What does “parenteral” route of administration mean? Give examples.
    not into the GI tract. by injection. IV, IM, SQ, etc.
  27. What does “topical” route of
    administration mean? Give examples.
    applied to surface of body or areas accessible to surface without using an injection. skin, eye ear ointments, flea powder.
  28. The oral route is not the only
    non-injection way to get medication into the GI tract. List 2 more.
    suppository, orogastric tube, nasogastric tube, pharangostomy tube.
  29. What does “dose” mean?
    calculated amount of drug to be given to the patient at one time.
  30. When describing a patient dose, is
    it better to say “Give him 2 pills” or “Give him 20 mg”? Why?
    “Give him 20 mg” – is most specific. what size pills?
  31. What is a “loading dose”? Why is it
    given? How often is it given?
    high initial dose given in order to reach therapeutic levels more quickly. one higher dose is given once, or the first few regular size doses are given more often.
  32. What is a “maintenance” dose?
    smaller than loading dose. dose given at regular intervals to keep the drug blood concentration in the therapeutic range.
  33. Which dose of a drug is higher –
    its loading dose or its maintenance dose?
    its loading dose, when the dose interval is not being shortened for the first few doses.
  34. What is the “total daily dose” and how is it calculated?
    the total amount of drug given to the patient for 1 day. calculated by multiplying the dose by the dose interval. ex: 10 mg TID = 30 mg.
  35. “Spot” Jones is getting drug Y at
    50 mg BID. What is his total daily dose?
  36. What does “dosage interval” mean?
    how often the drug is given to the patient. BID, TID, q4h, etc.
  37. Your veterinarian has prescribed
    100 mg of an antibiotic to be given to “Fluffy” Smith TID. Mrs. Smith is on 12 hour shifts at work this week. Does Mrs. Smith have to quit her job so she can treat Fluffy?

    What can she do?
    no - she may be able to take Fluffy to work with her, go home at lunchtime, get a friend or family member to treat Fluffy, or board Fluffy for the day. best of all, if the drug can be given this way, give 150 mg BID – same total daily dose.
  38. What are the 2 components of the dosage regimen?
    dose, dose interval
  39. What 2 organs are mainly responsible for elimination of drugs?
    liver and kidneys
  40. If the main organs responsible for
    elimination of drugs are diseased, would this cause the rate of elimination of drugs to be speeded up or slowed down?
    slowed down
  41. If the rate of elimination of a drug was slowed down, would this cause an increase of a decrease in blood concentration of that drug, if we continued to give the drug at the normal dose and dose interval?
  42. If the main organs responsible for
    elimination of drugs are diseased in a patient, and we wanted to keep his dose interval the same, would it be best to increase or decrease his drug dose?
    decrease dose
  43. If the main organs responsible for
    elimination of drugs are diseased in a patient, and we wanted to keep his dose the same, would it be best to increase or decrease his dose interval?
    increase dose interval
Card Set
Princ. Pharm 1