What is a Cataract?
Opacity or clouding within crystalline lens
Lens are normally ____ and _______
Clear & transparent
Lens becomes _____ with _______ vision
Third leading cause of blindness is ?
What are some influencing factors of cataracts?
Blunt trauma, toxins, systemic disease
What is a Congenital factor for cataracts?
Exposure to maternal rubella
What are other contributing factors?
Radiation/UV light exposure
Long-term systemic or topical corticosteroid use
The most common type of cataract is ?
What causes senile cataract formation?
Altered metabolic processes
List Clinical Manifestations of cataracts (5)
Decrease in vision, blurred vision
Abnormal color perception
Glaring of vision
Difficulty driving at night or when pupil dilates due to light scatter
Reasons why cataracts go undetected (3)
they are Painless
Visual decline is gradual
Cataract development varies from pt to pt
What are some subjective data in assessing for cataracts?
Blurred vision- often 1st symptom
Hazy or fuzzy
What are some objective data in assessing for cataracts?
Does pt bring newspaper close to eyes?
Do you note pt having difficulty reading?
C/O sensitivity to light
Diagnostic Studies used for cataracts?
History and physical examination
c/o of visual dysfunction
Visual acuity measurement
Slit lamp microscope
Appearance of white pupil
What are the non-surgical cures for cataracts?
There is not a nonsurgical “cure”
How are cataracts treated if surgery is not an option?
Visual aids (palliative)
What is the only definitive method of treatment?
Performed at any age
Local, topical or general anesthesia
During the preoperative phase preparations should include?
History and physical exam
Evaluate and control other medical problems
Preoperative antibiotic eye drops
Dilating drops administered
Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory eye drop
An alpha-adrenergic agonist that produces pulillary dilation by constriction of the iris dilator muscles?
What is the cycloplegic drug that is used in treating cataracts?
An anticholinergic agent that produces paralysis of accommodation by blocking the effect of acetylcholine on the ciliary body muscles.
What are the surgical procedures used for cataracts?
What is Extracapsular?
Most common surgical procedure for cataracts. Healing is rapid
What is the ultrasound procedure used to break up and remove lenses?
Phacoemulsification. Self healing
Intraoperative phase include these steps
Cataract extracted and sutured
Cortex irrigated and aspirated
Corticosteroid ointment applied with protective shield
____________ ___________ is an intraocular procedure
When is intracapsular extraction performed?
Usually only in cases of trauma
Outpatient procedure unless complications occur
Antibiotic and corticosteroid eye drops
6- to 8-week follow-up
A nurse will assess for these after surgery of cataracts
Psychosocial impact of visual disability
Level of knowledge of disease
Comfort and ability to comply with postop treatment
Cataracts Nursing Diagnoses
Risk for injury
Anxiety of upcoming surgery and recovery
Nursing management preoperative goals
Make informed decisions regarding therapeutic options
Experience minimal anxiety
Nursing management Postoperative goals
Understand and comply with postoperative therapy
Maintain level of comfort
Free of infection and other complications
Nursing Management Implementation Health promotion
Avoid unnecessary radiation
Adequate antioxidant vitamins
Nursing Management Implementation for Acute intervention
Educate about disease process and treatment options
Administer mydriatics using punctal occlusion
Teach signs and symptoms of infection
Nursing Management information on long-term eye care
S/S of possible complications
Teaching for ambulatory and home care
Educate on postoperative visual acuity
Instruct family to modify activities and environment
Remove area rugs
Prepare frozen meals
Provide audio books
Goals after cataract surgery
Ability to care for self
Minimal to no pain
Cataract. slides from class