1. What is a Cataract?
    Opacity or clouding within crystalline lens
  2. Lens are normally ____ and _______
    Clear & transparent
  3. Lens becomes _____ with _______ vision
    Foggy decreased
  4. Third leading cause of blindness is ?
  5. What are some influencing factors of cataracts?
    • Age
    • Blunt trauma, toxins, systemic disease
    • Diabetes, smoking
  6. What is a Congenital factor for cataracts?
    Exposure to maternal rubella
  7. What are other contributing factors?
    • Radiation/UV light exposure
    • Long-term systemic or topical corticosteroid use
    • Intraocular inflammation
  8. The most common type of cataract is ?
    Senile cataract
  9. What causes senile cataract formation?
    Altered metabolic processes
  10. List Clinical Manifestations of cataracts (5)
    • Decrease in vision, blurred vision
    • Photosensitivity, diplopia
    • Abnormal color perception
    • Glaring of vision
    • Difficulty driving at night or when pupil dilates due to light scatter
  11. Reasons why cataracts go undetected (3)
    • they are Painless
    • Visual decline is gradual
    • Cataract development varies from pt to pt
  12. What are some subjective data in assessing for cataracts?
    • Blurred vision- often 1st symptom
    • Hazy or fuzzy
  13. What are some objective data in assessing for cataracts?
    • Does pt bring newspaper close to eyes?
    • Do you note pt having difficulty reading?
    • C/O sensitivity to light
  14. Diagnostic Studies used for cataracts?
    • History and physical examination
    • c/o of visual dysfunction
    • Visual acuity measurement
    • Ophthalmoscope studies
    • Slit lamp microscope
    • Appearance of white pupil
    • Glare testing
  15. What are the non-surgical cures for cataracts?
    There is not a nonsurgical “cure”
  16. How are cataracts treated if surgery is not an option?
    • Visual aids (palliative)
    • Reading glasses
    • Magnifiers
    • Increased lighting
  17. What is the only definitive method of treatment?
    • Surgical Therapy
    • Performed at any age
    • Local, topical or general anesthesia
  18. During the preoperative phase preparations should include?
    • History and physical exam
    • Evaluate and control other medical problems
    • Preoperative antibiotic eye drops
    • Dilating drops administered
    • Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory eye drop
  19. An alpha-adrenergic agonist that produces pulillary dilation by constriction of the iris dilator muscles?
  20. What is the cycloplegic drug that is used in treating cataracts?
    An anticholinergic agent that produces paralysis of accommodation by blocking the effect of acetylcholine on the ciliary body muscles.
  21. What are the surgical procedures used for cataracts?
    • Extracapsular
    • Phacoemulsification
  22. What is Extracapsular?
    Most common surgical procedure for cataracts. Healing is rapid
  23. What is the ultrasound procedure used to break up and remove lenses?
    Phacoemulsification. Self healing
  24. Intraoperative phase include these steps
    • Corneoscleral incision
    • Cataract extracted and sutured
    • Cortex irrigated and aspirated
    • Corticosteroid ointment applied with protective shield
  25. ____________ ___________ is an intraocular procedure
    Cataract extraction
  26. When is intracapsular extraction performed?
    Usually only in cases of trauma
  27. Postoperative phase
    • Outpatient procedure unless complications occur
    • Antibiotic and corticosteroid eye drops
    • 6- to 8-week follow-up
  28. A nurse will assess for these after surgery of cataracts
    • Visual acuity
    • Psychosocial impact of visual disability
    • Level of knowledge of disease
    • Comfort and ability to comply with postop treatment
  29. Cataracts Nursing Diagnoses
    • Risk for injury
    • Self-care deficits
    • Anxiety of upcoming surgery and recovery
  30. Nursing management preoperative goals
    • Make informed decisions regarding therapeutic options
    • Experience minimal anxiety
  31. Nursing management Postoperative goals
    • Understand and comply with postoperative therapy
    • Maintain level of comfort
    • Free of infection and other complications
  32. Nursing Management Implementation Health promotion
    • Wear sunglasses
    • Avoid unnecessary radiation
    • Adequate antioxidant vitamins
    • Good nutrition
  33. Nursing Management Implementation for Acute intervention
    • Educate about disease process and treatment options
    • Administer mydriatics using punctal occlusion
    • Teach signs and symptoms of infection
  34. Nursing Management information on long-term eye care
    • Activity restrictions
    • Medications
    • Follow-up visits
    • S/S of possible complications
  35. Teaching for ambulatory and home care
    • Educate on postoperative visual acuity
    • Instruct family to modify activities and environment
    • Remove area rugs
    • Prepare frozen meals
    • Provide audio books
  36. Goals after cataract surgery
    • Improved vision
    • No injury
    • Ability to care for self
    • Minimal to no pain
    • Optimistic expectations
Card Set
Cataract. slides from class