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  1. during most of the action potential the plasma membrane cannot respond to an additional stimulus.
    Absolute Refractory Period
  2. when a nerve or muscle cell receives a stimulus that exceeds the membrane potential.
    Action Potential
  3. requires life, biologic activity, expenditure of metabolic energy by the cell. Occurs only in living membranes requiring energy and having receptors that recognize what is being transported. Larger molecules. Move against or up concentration gradient
    Active Mediated Transport
  4. is one in which one part is hydrophobic (uncharged) and another part is hydrophilic (charged)
    Amphipathic Molecule
  5. the energy-using process of metabolism
  6. (also called substrate phosphorylation) does not take place in the mitochondria and is linked to the breakdown (glycolysis) of carbohydrate
    Anerobic Glycolysis
  7. in living cells, cellular debris is encapsulated within a vesicle that reacts with a lysosome to complete its degradation. Occurs in starvation, enabling the cell to use a part of its own substance for fuel without doing itself irreparable harm.
  8. cells can be bound together or attached
    Basement membrane
  9. the energy-releasing process of metabolism
  10. proteins that allow cells to hook together and form attachments to the cytoskeleton for maintaining cellular shape.
    Cell adhesion molecule (CAM)
  11. forms cable-like fibers or sheets that provide tensile strength or resistance to longitudinal stress.
  12. these compete for the same receptor site and may or may not be transported by the transport protein.
    Competitive Inhibitor
  13. the difference in concentration, high moves to low.
    Concentration Gradient
  14. one of the two major second messenger pathways. Binding of the ligand to its surface receptor eventually activates the enzyme on the inner surface of the membrane.
    cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate)
  15. serves as a second messenger similar to the cAMP pathway. (Signal transduction pathway involved in vision)
    cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate)
  16. process through which cells become specialized or mature, so that some cells eventually perform one kind of function and other cells perform other functions
  17. the movement of a solute molecule from an area of greater solute concentration to an area of lesser solute concentration.
  18. membrane bound middleman, acts as an intermediary between the receptor and adenylyl cyclase
  19. process that controls the permeability of junction complex of the plasma membrane. Depends on the concentration of calcium ions in the cytoplasm. Increased cytoplasmic calcium causes decreased permeability at the junctional complex
  20. has the same osmolarity or concentration of particles as the ICF or ECF
    Isotonic solution
  21. naturally occurs through any semipermeable barrier, driven by osmosis, hydrostatic pressure, and diffusion, all of which depend on the law of physics and do not require life. Requires no expenditure of energy by the cell, water and small electrically uncharged molecules move easily through pores in the plasma membrane’s lipid bilayer. Move the same path as simple diffusion
    Passive mediated transport (facilitated diffusion)
  22. the overall osmotic effect of colloids, such as plasma protein
    Onocotic pressure (colloidal oncotic pressure)
  23. measure of the number of milliosmoles per kilogram of water, or the concentration of molecules per weight of water.
  24. Measure of the number of milliosmoles per liter of solution, or the concentration of molecules per volume of solution
  25. the movement of water “down” a concentration gradient across a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a lower water concentration. Membrane must be more permeable to water than solutes.
  26. the amount of hydrostatic pressure required to oppose the osmotic movement of water.
    Osmotic pressure
  27. essential substance of an organ rather than its framework
  28. stimulates the production of connective tissue cells.
    PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)
  29. similar to lysosomes in microscopic appearance, but are larger an oval or irregular in shape. Contain several oxidative enzymes like catalase and urate oxidase.
    Peroxisome (microbody)
  30. noted as raised groupings of membranes that help organize components of a membrane
  31. thin, short, branching fiber that form an inelastic network made from a collagen-like protein call reticulum. Form the internal framework to which the epithelial cells of glands are attached.
    Reticular fibers
  32. describes the effective osmolality of a solution
  33. has a lower concentration and is thus more dilute than body fluids. Pulled into cell causing them to swell or burst.
    Hypotonic solution
  34. has a concentration of more than 285 to 294 mOsm/kg. Water can be pulled out of the cell causing the cell to shrink
  35. Total lack of oxygen
  36. (dropping off) is an important distinct type of cell death. Active process of cellular self-destruction, programmed cell death, that is implicated in both normal and pathologic tissue changes.
  37. type of laceration where a wide area of tissue may be pulled away, creating a large flap.
  38. is a normal yellow to green pigment of bile derived from the porphyrin structure of hemoglobin, excess causes jaundice
  39. a family of aspartic acid-specific proteases that are used in programed cell death
  40. occur as a result of not only sublethal injury sustained by cells but also normal (but inefficient) cell function
    Cellular accumulation (infiltration)
  41. either prevent the delivery of oxygen to the tissues or block its use (carbon monoxide)
    Chemical asphyxiant
  42. (bruise) is bleeding into the skin or underlying tissues as a consequence of a blow that squeezes or crushes the soft tissues and consequently ruptures blood vessels without breaking the skin
  43. occur in breast, pancreas, other abdominal structures, is cellular dissolution caused by powerful enzymes called lipases.
    Fat necrosis
  44. a yellow-brown pigment derived from hemoglobi
  45. lack of sufficient oxygen (most common cause of cellular injury). Can be caused from a decreased amount of oxygen in the air, loss of hemoglobin or hemoglobin function, decreased production of red blood cells, diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and poisoning of the oxidative enzymes within the cells.
  46. most common type of hypoxia, reduced blood supply.
  47. a tear or rip resulting when the tensile strength of the skin or tissue is exceeded. Much more jagged and irregular than an incision
  48. normally bind with triglycerides to form lipproteins, which are transported out of the cell. Fatty liver develops when CCl4 poisoning blocks the synthesis of this
    Lipid-acceptor proteins (apoproteins)
  49. the destruction of unsaturated fatty acids.
    Lipi peroxidation
  50. results when fragments of powder strike with enough force to abrade the skin but not actually penetrate the surface
  51. formation of vacuoles or cytoplasmic cavity within cytoplasm.
  52. a state in which the pH of arterial blood is less than 7.35
  53. a systemic increase in hydrogen ion concentration or loss of base
  54. mediates the hormonal regulation of sodium balance; a mineralocorticoid (steroid) synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex
  55. state in which the pH of arterial blood is greater than 7.45
  56. a systemic decrease in hydrogen ion concentration or an excess of base
  57. Renin stimulates the formation of 1, an inactive polypeptide which is the converted into II which has two major functions; stimulate the secretion of aldosterone and case vasoconstriction
    Angiotensin I and II
  58. evaluated to distinguish different types of metabolic acidosis. Normally equivalent.
    Anion gap
  59. stretch receptors that are sensitive to changes in volume and pressure
  60. can absorb excessive H+ (acid) or OH- (base) without a significant change in pH.
  61. primarily decreases calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclastic activity in bone
  62. pH can be returned to a normal range if the value of the denominator or the amount of carbonic acid also decreases
  63. occurs when the values for both components of the buffer pair return to normal
  64. occur when there is an excess of TBW in relation to total body sodium or a shift of water from the ICF to ECF space.
    Dilutional hyponatremia
  65. with serum calcium concentration exceeding 12 mg/dl can be created by a numbers of diseases
  66. carbon dioxide excess
  67. an elevation of ECF potassium above 5.5 mEq/L
  68. occurs when serum sodium levels exceed 147 mEq/L
  69. elevated serum phosphate level of more than 4.5 mg/dl, develops with exogenous or endogenous addition of phosphorus to the ECF or with significant loss to glomerular filtration
  70. inside of the cell becomes less negative or partially depolarized (increased excitability)
  71. one of the two main compartments of ECF
    Interstitial fluid
  72. two thirds of the body’s water
    Intracellular fluid (ICF)
  73. Blood plasma
    Inravascular fluid
  74. Protein and fluid accumulation in the interstitial space
  75. noncarbonic acids increase or bicarbonate (base) is lost from the extracellular fluid or cannot be regenerated by the kidney
    Metabolic acidosis
  76. common and occurs when bicarbonate is increased, usually caused by excessive loss of metabolic acids
    Metabolic alkalosis
  77. the movement of fluid back and forth across the capillary wall
    Net filtration
  78. metabolic acids eliminated by the kidneys or metabolized by the liver
    Nonvolatile body acid
  79. respiratory acids eliminated as carbon dioxide gas
    Volatile body acid
  80. characteristic of conditions related to bicarbonate loss with retention of chloride to maintain an ionic balance
    Normal anion gap
  81. occurs when there is alveolar hypoventilation. Carbon dioxide is retained increasing hydrogen ion concentration
    Respiratory acidosis
  82. occurs when there is alveolar hyperventilation and decreased plasma carbon dioxide
    Respiratory alkalosis
  83. (vasopressin dysregulation) circumstance contributing to excess water. Factors other than hyperosmolality or hypovolemia stimulate the secretion of or response to ADH
    Syndrome of inappropriate secretion (SIADH
  84. Hyperosmolar or hypertonic dehydration
    Water deficits
  85. free water excess
    Water intoxication
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