Bio Midterm

  1. the Scientific method steps
    • Identify the problem- make an observation
    • Research and form a hypothesis
    • Test your hypothesis – experimentation
    • Collect and record data
    • Conclusion- analyze your data, was your hypothesis correct?
  2. independent variable
    the variable being tested
  3. dependent variable
    The variable being measured
  4. control group
    A group that remains the same
  5. experimental group
    The group that is changed
  6. the four types of microscopes
    • 1. Compound light microscopes
    • 2. Electron microscope
    • 3.Transmission electron microscope
    • 4.Scanning electron microscope
  7. parts of a microscope
    Image Upload 1
  8. 8 characteristics of life
    • Display
    • organization


    Grow and develop

    Use energy

    Made of cells

    • Respond to
    • stimuli

    • Adaptations over
    • time

    • Maintains
    • Homeostasis
  9. the conversion chart
    • Kilo Hecto Deka Basic Deci Centi
    • Milli Micro Nano
  10. the levels of organization
    • Organism
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biome
    • Biosphere
  11. organism
    a single living thing
  12. population
    several organisms of the same species sharing space at the same time
  13. community
    group of interacting organisms sharing space at the same time
  14. ecosystem
    Biological community
  15. biome
    Large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and similar types of communities
  16. biosphere
    part of the earth that supports life
  17. niche
    is the role or position that an organism has in its environment
  18. habitat
    is an area where an organism lives
  19. competition
    occurs when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time
  20. intraspecific
    Competition between organisms of the same species
  21. interspecific
    Competition between organisms of different species
  22. predation
    An individual of one species called the predator, eats all or part of an individual of another species called the prey
  23. symbiotic relations
    when 2 or more organisms live together
  24. mutualism
    both organisms benefit
  25. commensalism
    one species benefits the other is unaffected
  26. parisitism
    host is harmed and the parasite benefits
  27. autotroph
    make their own food
  28. heterotroph
    consume other organisms for energy
  29. herbivore
    eat only producers
  30. carnivore
    eat only other consumers
  31. omnivore
    consume plants and animals
  32. detritovore
    feed on the garbadge in the ecosystem
  33. scavengers
    feed on organisms that have recently died
  34. decomposers
    break down complex molecules
  35. the ecological pyramid
    Image Upload 2
  36. ecological cycles
    • Carbon cycle
    • Nitrogen cycle
    • Phosphorous cycle
    • Water cycle
  37. atoms
    the building blocks of matter
  38. protons
    positively charged, contain mass
  39. neutrons
    no charge, contains mass
  40. electrons
    negatively charged, insignificant mass
  41. element
    a pure substance that cant be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means
  42. atomic number
    tells us the # of protons (and electrons)
  43. symbol
    unique for each element.
  44. atomic mass
    # of protons and neutrons
  45. isotopes
    contain the same # of protons as the element, but a different number of neutrons.
  46. ions
    charged atom or groups of atoms
  47. compound
    A pure substance formed when 2 or more elements combine.
  48. molecule
    compound held together by covalent bonds.
  49. carbohydrates
    carbon : hydrogen :oxygen (CH2O)
  50. lipids
    Made mostly of C and H
  51. protein
    is made of small carbon compounds called amino acids
  52. nucleic acid
    complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information.

    acids are made of smaller repeating subunits called nucleotides
  53. solute
    whats being dissolved
  54. solvent
    what a substance dissolves in
  55. solution
    a mixture of two or more substances (solvent and solute)
  56. What is neutral?
  57. What is acid for pH?
    H+>OH- (sour)
  58. What is base for pH?
    H+<OH- (bitter)
  59. enzymes
    Specialized proteins that act as “catalyst” (speeds up a reaction)
  60. What is a reaction?
    Molecules breaking or coming together
  61. reactant
    What goes in the reaction
  62. product
    What comes out of the reaction
  63. activaion energy
    minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to turn into products
  64. exothermic
    released heat energy
  65. endothermic
    absorbed heat energy
  66. How is a Enzyme substrate complex formed?
    When a substrate fits in the active site of an enzyme, this forms an enzyme substrate complex.
  67. Robert Hooke
    in 1665, saw dead plant cells using a light microscope, Called them “cellulae” (small rooms)
  68. Lee Uwenhoek
    Was the first person to observe living cells, made microscope with a magnification 10X “Father of microscopes”
  69. cell theory
    • -All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
    • -Cells are the basic units of structure and organization of all living organisms
    • -Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
  70. cell membrane
    The wall- protects the internal structures of the cell, determines what comes in and out of the cell.
  71. cytoplasm
    clear fluid that contains the organelles
  72. cytoskeleton
    Provides the framework for the cell, holds organelles in place
  73. nucleus
    controls the cell.
  74. nucleolus
    produces ribosomes
  75. nuclear pores
    allow things in and out of nucleus.
  76. ribosomes
    Makes polypeptide chains of amino acids, producing Proteins.
  77. rough ER
    contains ribosomes and synthesizes proteins.
  78. smooth ER
    No ribosomes, synthesizes lipids (fats).
  79. golgi
    modifies proteins and fats and gets them ready for export!
  80. vacuole
    large water “bubble” in a plant cell, maintains the shape of the cell, without it, the plant cell would shrink and the plant would wilt.
  81. lysosomes
    contain enzymes, break down cellular waste product and debris.
  82. centrioles
    Involved in cell division, works in pairs
  83. mitochondria
    Converts oxygen into energy
  84. cilia and flagella
    Used in cells for movement, used in stationary cells for moving substances around the outside of the cell.
  85. chloroplasts
    Capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy (sugar).
  86. cell wall
    Rigid structure, provides strength for the cell.
  87. What is the difference between plant and animal cells?
    • plant cells are square, have big vacuoles, chloroplasts, and a cell wall. Animal cells have small vacuoles, centrioles and
    • lysosomes.
  88. prokaryotes
    Do not have a distinct nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles
  89. eukaryotes
    Contain a nucleus, contain membrane-bound organelles, makes up most multicellular organisms
  90. What is the cell membrane structure made of?
    The cell membrane structure is made of a phospholipid bilayer
  91. diffusion
    Movement of molecules from High concentration to Low Concentration by random motion
  92. passive transport
    Movement of particles across the cell membrane without using energy
  93. osmosis
    Diffusion of water, flows from high to low concentration
  94. facilitated diffusion
    Movement of materials across the plasma membrane using proteins
  95. active transport
    Specific protein that can pump molecules across the membrane, usually in opposite direction of diffusion (Low concentration to high concentration), Requires energy.
  96. isotonic solution
    water and dissolved substances diffuse into and out of the cell at the same rate.
  97. hypotonic solution
    Solute concentration is higher inside the cell, and water diffuses into the cell.
  98. hypertonic solution
    Solute concentration is higher outside the cell and water diffuses out of the cell.
  99. phospholipid
    • "Phospho”-Hydrophillic, Polar (heads)and “lipid”-Hydrophobic, Non-polar
    • (tails)
  100. plasmolysis
    State where plant cells shrink in hypertonic environment
  101. cytolysis
    State where cells Burst in hypotonic environment
  102. turger pressure
    When Pressure builds up as water moves in and out via Osmosis in plants
  103. Thermodynamics
    is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe
  104. Laws of thermodynamics
    • First law —energy can be converted from one form
    • to another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed.
    • Second law —energy cannot be converted without
    • the loss of usable energy.
  105. Light
    energy that travels in waves
  106. Visible light
    • the light we see
    • - ROYGBIV
  107. ATP
    • Adenosine Tri Phosphate,
    • Structure: Adenine base, ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups
  108. Making ATP
    For each NADH=3ATP, For each FADH2= 2 ATP
  109. Photosynthesis
    light energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell·
  110. Photosynthesis equation
    Chemical equation: 6CO2 + 6H20--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  111. Chlorophyll
    • green pigment that aids in photosynthesis, found in leaves, appears green and
    • allows plants to capture light·
  112. Light dependant reactions
    • light energyis absorbed and converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH(also produces oxygen).
    • - takesplace in the thylakoids -
    • Inputs:light and water
    • Outputs:Oxygen, ATP and NADPH·
  113. Light Independent reactions (CalvinCycle)
    • takes place in the stroma, makes glucose
    • Inputs:ATP, NADPH, and Co2
    • Outputs:Glucose
  114. Cellular respiration
    • organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell,organisms obtain energy.
    • Inputs:Oxygen, glucose
    • Outputs:6Co2, 6H20, and ATP·
  115. Cell respiration equation
    Equation: C6H12O6+6O2-->6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP
  116. 3 steps of cellular respiration
    glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transportchain
  117. Glycolysis
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm, breaks glucose apart
    • Inputs:Glucose, ATP, ADP, NAD+
    • Outputs:2 pyruvates, 4 ATP, NET- 2 ATP and NADH
  118. Kreb cycle
    • occurs in the Mitochondrial matrix
    • Inputs:2 pyruvates, ADP, FAD, NAD+, Co-A
    • Outputs: 3Co2, 4NADH, 1 ATP, 1 FADH2
    • Multiply x2 the amount of pyruvates
  119. Aerobic Respiration
    with oxygen
  120. Anaerobic Respiration
    without oxygen
Card Set
Bio Midterm
For my bio midterm