Chapter 4

  1. The science relating to moral actions and individual value systems. The systematic study of what a person's conduct and actions ought to be with regard to self, other human beings, and the environment
  2. Concerns the social nature of the community, codes of behavior, and community expectations
  3. Norms and rules from the duties human beings owe to one another by virtue of commitments made and roles assumed
    Deontological Theories
  4. Norms or rules for conduct from the conswquences of actions
    Theolical Theories
  5. An emerging theory in ethics that encorporates the various ethical principles in attempting to resolve conflicts in clinical settings
  6. *Decisions about forgoing life-sustaining treatmentthat may conflict with religious beliefs
    *Decisions not to pursue aggressive treatment while waiting to see what outcome God wants or trusting that conservatice treatment will work if God so intends
    *Decisions to bow to a higher order, given by divine command, such as Jehova's Witnessess, who do not ingest blood, therefore, refuse blood tranfusions, even if life depends on it
    Examples of Deontological Theories in Health Care Setting
  7. *Autonomy
    *Rspect for Others
    Eight Ethical Principles Nurses Encouter When Making Decisions in Clinical Settings
  8. Personal Freedom, Right to Self-Determination
  9. Actions to promote good
  10. Person should do no harm
  11. Telling the truth and the whole truth
  12. Treating persons equally and fairly
  13. Allows one to make decisions for another and often has been viewed as a negative or undesirable or principle
  14. Keeping one's promises and commitments
  15. Acknowledges the right of individuals to make decisions and to live by these decisions without prejudice
    Respect for Others
  16. 1. Who should make the choices?
    2. What are possible options or courses of action?
    3. What are available and reasonable alternatives?
    4. What are consequences (positive/negative) of all possible options?
    5. Which rules, obligations, and values should direct the choices?
    6. What are desired goals and outcomesin the given situations?
    Questions in Ethical Decision Making
  17. Two or more unfavorable alternatives to a given situation

    Ex. Elderly gentleman wants independecy but family believes he should be in assisted living because of risk for injury.
    Ethical Dilemmas
  18. M- massage the dilemma
    O- outline the options
    R- resolve the dilemma
    A- act by applying the chosen option
    L- Look back and evaluate
    MORAL model
  19. 1. Provide structure and guidelines for potential problems
    2. Serve as an open ended forum for discussion and debate
    3. Function as a patient advocate by placing the patient at the core of the committee's deliberations
    Ethics Committees
  20. Uses substituted judment (what the person would have done if capable of making a decision) and facilitates decision making for the incompetent patient
    Patient Benefit Model
  21. Facilitates decision making for competent patient
    Autonomy Model
  22. Considers broad social issues that may arise within the institution; many ethics committees hold grand rounds
    Social Justice Model
  23. These are usually conducted on a monthly basis and allow staff members to begin to be more involved in ethical decision making by presenting cases that involves a variety of ethical issues
    Ethical Grand Rounds
  24. Assist health care providers with future ethical decision making by making them more knowledgeable about about ethical principles and the MORAL model
    The purpose of ethical grand rounds
Card Set
Chapter 4
Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Nursing Practice