1. Which answer is false about the X chromosome?
    a. A barr body is formed when one x chromosome shuts down
    b. only contain genes essential to sex determination
    c. one of the largest human chromosomes
    d. presence of barr bodies is used to determine the sex of fetuses during amniocentesis
    b. only contain genes essential to sex determination
  2. Which answer is correct about the Y Chromosome?
    D. Sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) gene encodes for testes determining factor
    D. Sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) gene encodes for testes determining factor
  3. Genital ridges in the abdominal cavity of developing human embryos form into indifferent gonads at which time in gestation?
    A. 3 weeks
    B. 5 weeks
    C. 7 weeks
    D. 9 weeks
  4. Which of the following is NOT true about gonad development?

  5. Which statement is false about the development of male accesory glands and ducts?
    A. Int he embryo, testostorone stimulates the wolffian duct system to develop into epididymus, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory duct
    B.In the embryo, testostorone stimulates part of the urethra to deelop into the prostate gland and the bulbourethral glands
    C. in the embryo, the casa efferentia develop from mesonephric tubules
    D. Sertoli cells in the embryonic testes secrete mullerian-inhibiting substance which causes regression of the mullerian ducts
  6. Which statement is true about the development of the female accessory ducts and glands?

  7. Which would result in the development of both mullerian and wolffian duct systems?
    D. Orchidectomized male rat embryo is given testostorone
  8. Which is false about the development of external genitalia?
    A.genital tubercle develops into clitoris or part of penis
    B. urogenital folds develop into ventral aspect of penis shaft
    C. labioscrotal swelling develops into labia minora or the scrotum
    D. urethral tissue develops into female lesser and greater vestibular glands
  9. Which is true about the newborn reproductive system?
    A. Very few leydig cells are present in the testes at birth
  10. Which is true about intersex people?
    A. 46:XY aberrant recombinations result in Y chromosomes that have lost SRY resulting in XY "females"
  11. Which of the following is true baout abnormalities of ploidy number?
    D. Downs syndrome (trisomy 21) is an example of an aneuploidy with an extra autosomal chromosome
  12. What is the most common chromosomal abnormality in human embryos?
    D. Downs syndrome 47: trisomy 21
  13. What is true about testicular feminization syndrome?
    • A. an example of 465:XY pseudointersex
    • C. Because of the presence of MIS, no mullerian duct derivatives are present
    • D. Develop female-like external genitalia
  14. What is true about XY people who have 5alpha reducatase defficiency?
    • B. Lack enzyme that converts testostorone to dihydrotestostorone (DHT)
    • c. Newborns have external genitalia that appear to be female
    • D. At puberty testes descend into the labia majora and they fuse to become a scrotum
  15. which answer best describes how females differ from males in pubertal development?
    D. Females on average begin theit growth spurt 2 years earlier and become fertile one year earlier than males
  16. Which is the correct chronological order of pubertal changes in females?
    A. accelerated skeletal growth rate, pubic hair, axillary hair, acne
  17. Which is trua bout female pubertal changed in the USA?
    • a. the average age for menarche is 12.3 yrs
    • c. the average age that females reach their adult height is 15
    • d. preccocious ouberty in females is when there is breast development or pubic hair development before age 7 years
  18. What is the average age that USA males demonstrate initial stage of spermatogenesis?
    C.9 years old
  19. Which is the correct chronological order of pubertal changes in males?
    D. testes enlargement, accelerated skeletal growth, pubic hair, axillary hair
  20. Which is true for testicular development?
    B. The testicular sixe of an 8 yr old is 0.8 mL while an adult is 16.5mL
  21. Which are the levels of FSH and LH from gestation to puberty?
    D. High in fetus, high in neonate, low in 1-8, and high in puberty
  22. Affects of androgens on pubertal females
    • a. lowering of voice slightly
    • b.acne
    • d. long bone growth
  23. True about pubertal onset:
    • b. only females have the ability for positive feedback of estrogen on GnRh
    • c. kisspeptin is believe to stimulate the release of GnRh and contribute to the onset of puberty
    • d. leptin levels increase before the onset of puberty
  24. True of menarche
    • females with low body fat can have delayed menarche
    • increased exposure to xenoestrogens from the environment may conribute to the earlier development of menarche
    • the age of menarche in USA females has shown a steady declinne over the past years
  25. what is correct about genetics and menarche?
    c. THE GENE CYP3A4 is in greater frequencies in Black and latina females compared to white females
  26. True for andropause:
    Blood levels of estrogen may rise in older men
  27. Which is true about androgen replacemtn therapy for andropause
    • A. may increase libido
    • C. may increase muscle mass
    • D. May increase bone density
  28. Which of the following is is true for menopause?
    • Associated with loss of ovarian follicular activity
    • Associating with dramatic drop in ovarian hormones
    • Women who smoke cigarettes ten to enter menopause early
    • women who breast feed have late menopause
    • Use of oral contraceptives gives a late menopause
  29. The main reason for infertility in women under 40 is
    loss of preembryos or embryos with chromosomal abnormalities
  30. Which of the following endocrine changes is true about premenopause/menopause?
    • drop in circulating estrogen contributes
    • increased levels of FSH
  31. Which is a risk factor for osteoporosis?
    • amenorrhea
    • nulliparoud
    • smoking
  32. Which is truee of estrogen hormone replacement therapy for menopause?
    • relieves hot flashes
    • Reduces vaginal dryness
    • Reduces osteoporosis
  33. ehich is true of phytoestrogens?
    Studies have demonstrated that regular consumption of phytoestrogen-rich foods may increase the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in women
  34. True about the regular consumption of tea fromm camellia sinensis?
    • Lower rates of osteoporosis
    • reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease
  35. which is true for pheromones?
    • Human females are able to detect musk like fragrances near the time of ovulation, but not during other times of their mesntrual cycles
    • Both human females and rhesus monkeys secrete copulin molecules that appear to increase male sexual attraction to them
    • Pheromones apear to be responsible for triggering synchronized menstrual cycles in women who live together
  36. True of Vomeronasal organs?
    Skin extracts containing estrenes cause the male VNO to respond more than female VNO
  37. True of major histocompatibility complex genes
    Human mates with similar MHC's tend to be less fertile with higher misscarriage rates
  38. What is tru of the orgasmic phase of the female sexual response cycle?
    • There can be either clitoral or vaginal orgasm
    • women who reach the plateau do not always proceed to orgasm
    • Status Orgasmus is a woman is a sustained orgasm lasting up to one minute
  39. What is true about the excitement phase of the male sexual response cycle?
    Testes become elevsaated because of contraction of cremaster muscle in scrotum
  40. True about the plateau phase of the male sexual response cycle
    • urethral bulb enlarges to 3 times its usual size
    • prostate gland enlarges
    • testes volume increases by 50 %
  41. True about the orgasmic phase of the male secual response cycle
    • During emmision phase of ejaculation smooth muscles contract from the testes all the way to the urethra to transport semen into the urethral bulb
    • Rhythmic contraction of the penis and the bulbocavernosus muscle result in a forceful explosion of the semen from the urethra
    • male may experience clutching motions of hands and feet
  42. Region of brain that most influences sexual behavior
    limbic system
  43. True about hormones and sexual behavior?
    • IUn normal men there is an inverse relationship betweenn blood levels of testostorone and how long it takes to achieve maximum penile erection
    • oxytocin is released during the sexual response in both females and males
  44. Which is true about associations to gay sexual preference?
    • males with multiple older brothers
    • left handed
    • having an identical twin who is gay
  45. True about secual dysfuncition
    • vaginismus is painful spasmodic contractions of outer one third of vagina
    • dyspareunia can be caused by failue of vagina to lubricate
    • penile glands can develop a hypersensiticity to spermicides
  46. what is true about erectile dysfunction (ED) in men?
    Psychological conditions such as anxiety of fear activate the sympathetic which inhibits erection
  47. What is a mechanism of action of YOHIMBINE from PAUSINYSTALIA JOHIMBE from west Africa?
    competetive blockade on androgenic alpha receptors
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