what is self aid?
emergency treatment one applies to oneself
name some items that you might use as a splint from your military equipment
- entrenching tool
- tent poles and stakes
- web belt
how many pressure points, which can be used to control bleedings with fingers, thumbs or hands are there on a human body?
what are the objectives of first aid?
- to stop bleeding
- overcome shock
- relieve pain
- prevent infection
what FM covers first aid for soldiers
what is first aid?
it is the first care given to casualties before treatment by medical personel is available
when would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound?
if in a chemical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound
what soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries?
- soldier not accostumed to heat
- overweight soldiers
- prior heat casualties
- soldiers already dehydrated
how high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?
2 to 4 inches
what the ABC'S of medical treatment?
- open the airway and restore breathing
- stop the bleeding
- prevent shock
when applying splint, where should the bandages bee tied?
the bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
whose first aid dressing should be used on a casualty?
use the casualties field dressing
how should the ends of an improvise pressure dressing be tied
to the ends together in a nonslip knot directly over the wound site
what is manual pressure?
if the bleeding continues after applying the sterile field dressing, direct manual pressure may be used to help control bleeding
why should you dress and bandage the wound as soon as possible?
to protect the wound from further contamination of germs and also control bleeding
what should you do to indicate that a casualty has receive a tourniquet?
mark his or her forehead with a T and if possible, note the time of the application of the tourniquet
should you ever remove or loosen a tourniquet?
No, only a qualified medical personel can do that
where is a tourniquet applied?
place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (or between the wound and the heart)
name 3 categoris of heat cramps
- heat cramps
- heat exhaustion
- heat stroke
what are the signs and sympton of heat cramps?
- cramping of the extremeties
- abdominal cramps
- excessive sweating
what is the treatment of heat cramps?
- move the casualty to a cool shady area
- loosing his clothing (if not in a chemical area)
- have him drink slowly at least a canteen of water
what are the signs of heat exhaustion?
- loss of appetite
- rapid breathing
if a casualty is suspected of having a spinal injury, which method is best of opening his airway?
the jaw thrust method
what are two types of fractures?
simple and compound fractures
what are the signs of open fractures
- bones are sticking throught the skin
what are the symptons of closed fractures?
with an open fracture what should you do?
stop the bleeding
what is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
splint them where they lie
how tight should the torniquet be?
tight enough to stop the bright red bleeding
what the 3 types of bleeding?
what is heat injury
a loss of water and salt, loss of sweat while personel work in the heat a general dehydration of the body
what is the greatest preventive measure of diseases?
how do you stop bleeding?
- apply a field dressing
- manual pressure
- elevate a field dressing
- apply a tourniquet
what is CPR?
cardiopulmonary resucitation, it is used to resore heart beat
when can measures taken to resore breathing in an individual be discontinued?
- when a doctor tells you to stop
- when others relieve you
- when you cannot physically continue
- when the casualty starts to breath on his own
name 2 types of rescue breathing?
- mouth to mouth
- mouth to nose
how long is direct manual pressure applied to control bleeding?
5 to 10 minutes
what should you do prior to leaving an unconsious casualty?
turn their heads to the side to prevent them from choking on their own vomit
when should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
as a last resort when everything has failed or when an arm or leg has been severed off
what are the 2 prescribed method of opening an airway?
- jaw thrust method
- head tilt/chin lif method
in referrence to carrying a casualty, what are the one man methods?
- fireman carry
- armys carry
- saddle back carry
- supporting carry
- arms carry