Elements of Music: Learning Objectives

  1. Beat
    An even pulse in music that divides the passing of time into equal segments.
  2. Meter
    The gathering of beats into regular groups.
  3. Duple Meter
    Gathering of beats into two beats per measure, with every other beat stressed.
  4. Triple Meter
    Gathering of beats into three beats per measure, with every third beat stressed.
  5. Rhythm
    The organization of time in music, dividing up long spans of time into smaller, more easily comprehended units.
  6. Tempo
    The speed at which the beats occur in music.
  7. Grave
    A tempo mark indicating "very slow and grave"
  8. Adagio
    A tempo mark indication "slow"
  9. Andante
    A tempo mark indicating "moderately moving"
  10. Moderato
    A tempo marking indicating "moderately moving"
  11. Allegro
    A tempo mark indicating "fast"
  12. Vivace
    In musical notation, a tempo mark indicating "fast and lively"
  13. Presto
    In musical notation, a tempo mark indicating "very fast".
  14. Octave
    The interval comprising the first and eighth tones of the major and minor diatonic scale; the sounds are quite similar because the frequency of vibration of the higher pitch is exactly twice that of the lower.
  15. Scale (diatonic)
    Pertaining to the seven notes that make up either the major or the minor scale.
  16. Scale (chromatic)
    Scale that makes use of all twelve pitches, equally divided, within the octave.
  17. Melody
    A series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive, recognizable musical unit; most often placed in the treble
  18. Phrase
    A self-contained portion of a melody, theme, or tune
  19. Motive
    A short, distinctive melodic figure that stands by itself
  20. Melodic Contour
  21. Pitch Repetition
    The repitition of the relative position, high or low, of a musical sound
  22. Stepwise (conjunct) motion
    Melodic motion that proceeds primarily by steps and without leaps.
  23. Leaping (disjunct) motion
    Melodic motion that moves primarily by leaps rather than by steps
  24. Harmony
    The sounds that provide the suppost and enrichment-the accompaniment-for melody
  25. Chord
    Two or more simultaneously sounding pitches
  26. Triad
    A chord consisting of three pitches and two intervals of a third
  27. Major
    A seven-note scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps: 1-1-1/2-1-1-1-1/2
  28. Minor
    A seven-note scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps: 1-1/2-1-1-1/2-1-1
  29. Consonant
    Pitches sounding agreeable and stable
  30. Dissonant
    A sicordant mingling of sounds
  31. Progression
  32. Tonic
    The central pitch around which the melody and harmony gravitate.
  33. Dominant
    The chord built on the fifth degree of the scale.
  34. Dynamics
    The various levels of volume, loud and soft, at which sounds are produced in a musical composition.
  35. Color
    The character or quality of a musical tone as determined by its harmonics and its attack and decay
  36. Piano
    In musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "soft"
  37. Forte
    In musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "loud"
  38. "mezzo-"
  39. "-issimo"
  40. Decresendo
    Gradual decrease in the intensity of sound.
  41. Diminuendo
    A gradual decrease in the volume sound
  42. Soprano
    The highest female vocal part
  43. Alto
    The lower of the two female voice parts, the soprano being higher.
  44. Tenor
    The highest male vocal range
  45. Bass
    The lowest male voice range
  46. Violin
    A string instrument; the soprano member of the violin family
  47. Viola
    A string instrument; the alto member of the violin family
  48. Cello
    An instrument of the violin family but more than twice the violin's size; it is played between the legs and produces a rich, lysical tone.
  49. Double bass
    The largest and lowest-pitches instrument in the string family
  50. Harp
    An ancient, plucked-string instrument with a triangular shape.
  51. Flute
    A high-sounding member of the woodwind family; initially made of wood, but more recently, beginning in the nineteenth century, of silver or even platinum.
  52. Piccolo
    A small flute; the smallest and highest-pitched woodwind instrument
  53. Oboe
    An instrument of the woodwind family; the highest-pitched of the double-reed instruments.
  54. Clarinet
    A single-reed instrument of the woodwind family with a large range and a wide variety of timbers within it
  55. Bassoon
    A low, double-reed instument of the woodwind family.
  56. Trumpet
    A brass-instrument of the soprano range.
  57. Horn
    A term generally used by muscisians to refer to any brass insturment, but most often the French horn.
  58. Trombone
    A brass instrument of medium to low range that is supplied with a slide, allowing a variety of pitches to sound.
  59. Tuba
    A brass instrument of the bass range.
  60. Timpani
    A percussion instrument consisting usually of two, but sometimes four, large drums that can produce a specific pitch when struck with mallets.
  61. Snare Drum
    A small srum consisting of a metal cylinder covered with a skin or sheet of plastic that, when played with sticks, produces the "rat-ta-tat" sound familiare from marching bands.
  62. Bass Drum
    A large, low-sounding drum struck with a soft-headed stick.
  63. Cymbal
    A percussion instrument of two metal discs; they are made to crash together to create emphasis and articulation in music.
  64. Organ
    An ancient musical instrument constructed mainly of pipes and keys; the player depresses a key, which allows air to rush into or over a pipe, therby producing sound.
  65. Harpischord
    A keyboard instrument, especially popular during the Barouque era, that produces sound by depressing a key that drives a lever upward and forces a pick to pluck a string.
  66. Piano
    A large keyboard instrument that creates sound at various dynamic levels when hammers are struck against strings
  67. Monophony
    A musical texture involving only a single line of music with no accompaniment.
  68. Monophonic
    • Music Having a single melodic line. All the voices and accompanying instruments are performing exactly the same
    • notes
  69. Unison
    Two or more voices or instrumental parts singing or playing the same pitch.
  70. Homophony
    A texture in which all the voices, or lines, move to new pitches at roughly the same time; often referred to in contradisctinction to polyphony
  71. Homophonic
    • A style of composition in which there is
    • one melody, and all the voices and accompaniments move rhythmically together.
  72. Polyphony
    A musical texture involving two or more simultaneously sounding lines,; the lines are often independent and create counterpoint.
  73. Polyphonic
    each voice may move independently.
  74. Counterpoint
    The harmonious opposition of two or more independent musical lines.
  75. Contrapuntal
  76. Canon
    (of Western music) a core repertoire, or the "chestnuts" of classical music performed at concerts continually since the eighteenth century. (round)A contrapuntal form in which individuals voices enter and each in turn duplicates exactly the melody that the first voice played or sang.
  77. Statement
    A presentation of important musical idea
  78. Repetition
    A process emplyed by a composer to validate the importance of a section of music by repeating it
  79. Variation
    Process employed by a composer to alter melody or harmony in some way
  80. Contrast
    Process employed by a composer to introduce different melodies, rythms, textures, or moods in order to provide variety.
  81. Strophic
    A musical form often used in setting a strophic, or stanzaic, text, such as hymn or caro; the music is repeated anew for each successive strophe.
  82. Binary
    A musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other.
  83. Ternary
    A three-part musical form in which the thirs section is a repeat of the first; hence ABA
  84. Rondo
    Classical form with at least three statements of the refrain (A) and at least two contrasting sections (at least B and C); placement of the refrain creates symmetrical patterns such as ABACA, ABACABA, or even ABACADA.
Card Set
Elements of Music: Learning Objectives
Terms/concepts to know and apply