1. Sudoriferous glands
    • Secrete sweat via Apocrine and Eccrine Glands (aka merocrine glands)
    • open onto the skin surface and regulate temperature.
  2. Eccrine sweat glands
    • open onto the skin surface and regulate temperature.
    • aka merocrine glands
  3. Apocrine sweat glands
    Found exclusively in armpits and genital regions, and open onto hair follicles, and respond to emotional stress.
  4. Atrophy
    • Skin surface thins and markings disappear,
    • semitransparent parchment-like appearance
  5. Bulla
    Vesicle with diameter greater than 1 cm
  6. Capillary Hemangioma
    Irregular red spot
  7. Crust
    • Reddish, brown, black, tan, or yellowish
    • dried blood, serum, or pus
  8. Cyst
    Eievated, palpable area containing liquid or viscous matter
  9. Ecchymosis
    Reddish-purple blotch, size varies
  10. Erosion
    Depression in epidermis, caused by tissue loss
  11. Erythema
    • Redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation.
    • Examples of erythema not associated with pathology include nervous blushes
    • Erythema disappears on finger pressure (blanching), while purpura or bleeding in the skin and pigmentation do not.
    • There is no temperature elevation in erythema, unless it is associated with the dilation of arteries in the deeper layer of the skin
  12. Excoriation
    Linear, may be hollow or crusted, caused by loss of epidermis leaving dermis exposed
  13. Fissure
    Linear red crack ranging into dermis
  14. Hyperemia
    Increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body
  15. Keloid
    Elevated scar, irregular shape, larger than original wound
  16. Lichenification
    Thickening and hardening of epidermis with emphasized lines in skin, resembles lichen
  17. Macule
    flat spot, colour varies from white to brown or from red to purple, diameter less than 1 cm
  18. Nail: Nail bed
  19. Nail: Nail plate
  20. Nail: Nail root
  21. Nail: Proximal nail fold
  22. Nodule
    Elevated firm spot, diameter 1—2cm
  23. Papule
    Elevated firm spot, colour varies from brown to red or from pink to purplish red, diameter less than 1 cm
  24. Patch
    Irregular f lat macule, diameter greater than 1 cm
  25. Petechiae
    • Reddish-purple spots,
    • diameter less than 0.5 cm
  26. Plaque
    Superficial papule, diameter greater than 1 cm, rough texture
  27. Purpura
    Reddish-purple blotch, diameter more than 0.5 cm
  28. Scale
    Elevated area of excessive exfoliation,varies in thickness, shape, and drynessand ranges in colour from white to silver or tan
  29. Pustule
    • Elevated area, diameter less than 1 cm,
    • contains purulent fluid
  30. Scar
    Fibrous, depth varies, colour ranges from white to red
  31. Spider angioma
    Reddish legs radiate from red spot
  32. Telangiectasia
    Red, thread-like line
  33. Tumor
    Elevated solid, diameter greater than 2 cm, may be same colour as Skin
  34. Ulcer
    • Red or purplish depression ranging into dermis,
    • caused by tissue loss
  35. Venous Star
    Bluish legs radiate from blue centre
  36. Vesicle
    • Elevated area, diameter less than 1 cm,
    • contains serous fluid
  37. Wheal
    Pink, irregular spot varying in size and shape
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