1. What is the CR entry for a supine AP abdomen (KUB)?
    perpendicular to the IR at the level of the iliac crests (L4)
  2. What is the CR entry for an upright AP abdomen?
    horizontal entering 2” above the crests
  3. Why would we do an upright abdomen as opposed to a KUB?
    for free air, must include the diaphragm
  4. Why would we do a PA abdomen in place of an AP?
    when the kidneys are not of primary concern, a PA projection greatly reduced pt. gonadal dose
  5. When performing a decubitus abdomen what steps should be taken to ensure fluid levels are accurately demonstrated?
    allow the patient the lay for 5 minutes before the exposure is taken, and wait a couple seconds after exhalation for the exposure to allow fluids to settle
  6. What is the CR entry for a lateral decubitus AP abdomen?
    horizontal, perpendicular to the center of the IR, entering at the level of the iliac crests
  7. What are the main evaluation criteria points for a KUB?
    pubic symphysis to upper abdomen included, proper patient alignment, no patient rotation, soft tissue grays demonstrate necessary anatomy
  8. How should a decubitus abdominal film be marked?
    mark side up
  9. Where should the CR be directed for a cross table decubitus abdomen?
    2 inches above the crest. centered to the vertebral column or top of cassette at axilla
  10. Why must a decubitus abdomen be done on the left side?
    so that air in the fundus is not mistaken for free air
  11. What is the pt. position for a decubitus abdomen?
    pt. lays on L. side, flex knees and extend arms. Allow fluid to settle
  12. a quality abdominal radiograph should demonstrate what anatomy?
    sharply defined psoas muscles, lower border of liver, kidneys, ribs, transverse process of lumbar vertebrae
  13. why is a PA CXR done with a “3-way” abdomen?
    for free air below the diaphragm
  14. why do we avoid doing a right lateral decubitus abdomen?
    free air may be mistaken for air in the fundus of the stomach
  15. Sternal/jugular notch level
    T2 T3
  16. Xiphoid process level
    T9 T10
  17. inferior costal rib margin
    L2 L3
  18. iliac crest level
    L4 L5
  19. ASIS Level
    S1 S2
  20. list the 3 parts of the small intestine
    Duodenum, jejunum, ilium
  21. what portion of the small intestine is considered to be the longest?
  22. Liver:
    lower rectum:
    • Liver: intraperitoneal
    • lower rectum: infraperitoneal
    • Ureters: retroperitoneal
    • Stomach: intraperitoneal
    • Duodenum: retroperitoneal
  23. Gallbladder:
    upper rectum:
    major abdominal blood:
    reproductive organs:
    • Gallbladder: intraperitoneal
    • upper rectum: retroperitoneal
    • major abdominal blood: retroperitoneal
    • reproductive organs: infraperitoneal
    • speen: intraperitoneal
  24. cecum:
    adrenal glands:
    urinary bladder:
    • cecum: intraperitoneal
    • adrenal glands: retroperitoneal
    • urinary bladder: infraperitoneal
    • pancreas: retroperitoneal
    • Duodenum: retroperitoneal
  25. ascending and descending colon:
    sigmoid colon
    female parts:
    • ascending and descending colon: retroperitoneal
    • jejunum:intraperitoneal
    • sigmoid: intraperitoneal
    • kidneys: retroperitoneal
    • female parts: infraperitoneal
    • ileum: intraperitoneal
  26. what stabilizes and and supports the small intestine?
  27. which one of the following structures is a double fold of peritoneum that connects the transverse colon to the greater curvature of the stomach?
    Greater Omentum
  28. the pancreas is located anterior or posterior to the stomach?
  29. vermiform is located _____________ of the cecum?
    posterior and medially
  30. what causes voluntary motion and how can you prevent it?
    patient breathing, and patient movement of during exposures can be prevented by careful breathing instructions
  31. what causes involuntary motion and how to stop it?
    peristalsis- and short exposure time
  32. what is ascites?
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity
  33. how do you exam the gallbladder?
  34. rotation can be determined on a KUB radiograph by the loss of symmetric appearance?
    • obturator foramina
    • flared ala wings
    • ischial spine
    • outer rib margin
  35. if left side is narrowed what side are you on?
    right side
  36. if your left side is flared what side are you on
    left side
  37. A patient with a history of ascites com to the radiology department. Which one of the following positions best demonstrates this condition?
    Erect AP abdomin
  38. double walled membrane lining the abdominal cavity is called
  39. which of the following soft tissue structures are seen on a properly exposed KUB?
  40. which of the following soft tissues structures are seen properly exposed KUB?
    Psoas Muscles
  41. the junction of the small and large intestine?
    ileocecal valve
  42. cecum:
    R Colic Flexure:
    Sigmoid Colon:
    • cecum: RLQ
    • Liver: RUQ
    • Spleen: LUQ
    • Stomach: LUQ
    • R Colic Flexure: RUQ
    • Sigmoid Colon: LLQ
    • Appendix: RLQ
    • Pancreas: RUQ LUQ
    • Gallbladder: RUQ
  43. what structure stores and releases bile?
  44. what structure connects the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall?
  45. the kidneys are connected to the bladder by?
  46. which specific decubitus position of the abdomen should be used in an acute abdomen series if the patient cannot stand?
    Left Lateral decubitus
  47. abdominal projections are taken upon inspiration or expiration?
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