Biology 104

  1. Animals are multi-___________________.
    cellular heterotrophs.
  2. A heterotroph is an organism that ______________.
    cannot make it's own food
  3. Animals are monophyletic which means ___________________________.
    Both invertebrates and vertebrates can trace their ancestry to the same ancestor
  4. Diploid means _________________________
    two copies of every chromosome
  5. Asymmetry means ____________________.
    No particular body shape.
  6. Radial Symmetry means _____________________.
    Two identical halves
  7. Bilateral symmetry means ______________________.
    Definite right and left halves
  8. A coelom is a ___________________.
    body cavity where internal organs are found
  9. Pseudocoelomates are _____________________________.
    Incompletley lined with mesodurm, which is a false body cavity
  10. Acoelomates do not __________________.
    Have a true body cavity
  11. Coelomates are organisms that _________________.
    Have a body cavity filled with mesodurm. A completley lined body cavity
  12. In protosomes the blastophere is _________________.
    associsted with the mouth
  13. In dueterosomes the _____________________.
    second mouth is opposite of the protosomes
  14. Segmentation means _____________.
    repeating units
  15. What are the three germ layers?
    Endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm
  16. Amoeboid cells have _________________________.
    epidermal and collar cells, found between, they help in serving food
  17. The job of a collar cell is to ______________________________.
    move water with food into the sponge and send it out the asculum
  18. The function of sessile filter feeders is to ___________.
    Take food from the water
  19. Spicules are used to ________________________.
    snare prey then send cells out to digest it
  20. Spicules and spongin compose ___________________.
    the skeleton of the sponge
  21. Active filter feeders fileter water for ___________________________.
    food non-stop until the die
  22. What are the two types of asexual reproduction for carnivorous sponges?
    Fragmentation and budding
  23. Fragmention in asexual reproduction is when ______________________.
    A chunk breaks off and makes a copy of itself
  24. Budding in asexual reproduction is when ________________________.
    Small sections of cells grow on adult and get larger until it breaks off
  25. Gemmules on carnivorous sponges are a ________________________________.
    survival mechanism which acts as a safe room for the cells of the sponge to stay until conditions allow for regrowth
  26. If species are sessile as adults then they are spread by ______________________.
    Moving a lot as youth
  27. Sessile means ________________.
    to stay in one place
  28. Phylum ctenophora are _____________.
    comb jellyfish
  29. Comb jellyfish capture their pray by ________________________.
    using their "combs" to draw food to mouth
  30. Luciferous means ______________.
    color that is bio-luminesnce
  31. Cnidocytes are _____________.
    Stinging cells
  32. Ctenophora have two body plans __________ and ________.
    Medusa shape and polyp shape
  33. The medusa shape looks like _________________.
    A bell with tentacles
  34. The polyp shape looks like ________________.
    an upside down bell with tentacles
  35. What is an aconita?
    A tentacle that goes down into the gastrovascular cavity
  36. Hydrozoa means _____________.
    Water animals
  37. What animal is the Physalia?
    Portuguese Man-of-War
  38. What is the function of the nerve net of the Scyphozoa (Jellyfish)?
    It helps to control the swimming movement.
  39. What is the statocysts in a Scyphozoa? (Jellyfish)
    Organ of balance
  40. How do Scyphozoa feed?(Jellyfish)
    The food sticks to the bell
  41. What are the two groups of Lophotrochozoans?
    Lophophores and Trocophores
  42. In the lophophores the feeding aparatus is _______________.
    Made up of tentacles
  43. In trocophores the larval stage __________________.
    moves by sylia
  44. What is the phylum for flatworms?
  45. Flat worms are flat ____________, which means from top to bottom.
  46. Monoecious planaria have _____________________________ but _______________.
    both male and female reproductive systems, cannot self-reproduce
  47. Hepatica is the latin term for ___________.
  48. Fasciola hepatica is a ________________.
    sheep liver fluke
  49. A human liver fluke is called ___________________.
    Clonorchis sensinsis
  50. The genus of tapeworms is __________.
  51. The habitat for a tapeworn is ______________.
    in the gut of the host
  52. A tapeworm has two body divisions, the ________ and ______________.
    • Scolex(head)
    • Strobilia, composed of proglottids
  53. The organization or protosomes in coelomates is ____________________________________.
    Bilateral, three germ layers, organ system of organization
  54. Phylum Nemertea are _______________.
    Ribbon worms and marine worms
  55. What are the three body parts of the Phylum Mollusca?
    Visceral Mass (majority of organs located here)

    • Mantle(structure that secretes the shell)
    • Foot
  56. On the Phylum Mollusca the Radula is the ____________________________.
    filing organism that helps to rip food into little pieces
  57. In the Bivalvia class of Phylum Mollusca they have no ___________ or _____________.
    • cephalization
    • radula
  58. The statolith is to help ________________________.
    class bivalia of phylum mollusca understand which way is down
  59. The foot of Mollusca Bivalia is used ____________________.
    mostly for digging
  60. The cilia's role in filter feeding is _______________________.
    to create a water current into the mollusc, extract the food and send out the water
  61. The resperatory system of molluscs is their ______.
  62. Veliger means _____________.
    Highly mobile
  63. Dioecious means _____________.
    Two houses(the male and femal look the same)
  64. What does Cephalopoda mean?
    Head Foot
  65. Squids, cuttlefish, octopus and nautilus are all part of class ____________. (Head/Foot)
  66. The foot sturcture of Cephalopods are highly _____.
  67. How do cephalopods move?
    By pulling water into the mantle cavity then shooting it out.
  68. What are the arms and tentacles of cephalopods used for?
    Obtaining food and sometimes used for reproduction
  69. Cephalopods have a lens on their eye that focuses ____________________________.
    light onto the the retina, like a camera
  70. How do cephalopods reproduce?
    By use of spermatophores.
  71. What does gastopoda mean?
    Stomach foot
  72. Snails, slugs and whelks are in the class __________.(stomach foot)
  73. How do carnivorous gastropods use their radula to eat?
    They scrape the shell of others, then use their tounges with poisonous barbs to kill them.
  74. Slugs are snails without _____.
  75. What is the calcareous dart of a slug used for?
    They jab each other with them, they have mucus on it that causes female reproductive tract to contract.
  76. Phylum Annelida are _____.
  77. What are the two digestive parts of a worm?
    Mouth and anus
  78. Worms have a closed cirulatory system which means __________________.
    blood is always in the vessel
  79. The nervous system of a worm contains a ______ and _______.
    • brain
    • nerve core
  80. Setae are the pointy things at the end of _________ on marine worms.
  81. Nereis is a ______, while other marine worms are filter feeders.
  82. ______ is adult part that lives in burrow.
  83. _________ break off from atoke and flop to the top of sea level.
    Epitoke(sperm and eggs)
  84. Class Oligochaeta are ___________.
  85. Earthworms move by _____________________.
    contraction of longitudinal and circular muscles
  86. Why do earthworms need to live in soil?
    They need moisture around their bodies to let oxygen enter into the body.
  87. What do earthworms eat?
    soil and organic material
  88. The crop of an earthworm is a __________________.
    temporary storage organ
  89. The gizzard of an earthworm is a _____________.
    grinding organ
  90. How do earthworms reproduce?
    They cling together by mucus then deposit fertilized eggs in soil.
  91. Class Hirunidea are ________.
  92. Hirudin is an __________.
  93. Ecdysozoans have the ability to ________________.
    shed outter coating
  94. Phylum Nematoda contain __________ and _________.

  95. Nematoda have sexual dimorphism which means ____________________.
    male looks significantly different than female
  96. Necator Americanus is a ________.
  97. Hookworm larvae get into a host by __________________.
    waving around on soil, wainting on contact with skin
  98. What is the food of Necator Americanus(hookworm)?
  99. Trichinosis is a result of hookworms caused by _________.
    uncooked pork
  100. Enterobius is a _________.
  101. Dracunculs medinesis is a ___________.
    guinea worm
  102. Arthropoda means ___________.
    joint foot
  103. What are the 3 regions of arthropods?
    Head, thorax and abdomen
  104. What is the function of the exoskeleton on a arthropod?
    Prevents organism from drying out, provides point of muscle attachment
  105. Arthropods have compound eyes, which means _____________.
    multiple lenses in every eye
  106. What three different types of resperatory organs do arthropods have?
    gills, book lungs and trachea
  107. Chelicerae are the ______________ of arthropods.
    feeding appendages
  108. Pedipalps are used for _____, _______ and ______ of arthropods.
    feeding, sensation and reproduction
  109. Cephalothorax means __________.
  110. The oldest terrestrial arthropods are __________.
  111. Since scorpions are nocturnal they use _______ to get around.
  112. Pectines are ___________________________________.
    little combs on the side of scorpions used to "feel" to move
  113. Pedipalps are the ______ of scorpions.
  114. Viviparous means ________________.
    gives birth to live young
  115. Chelicera are _________________________.
    modified into fangs, work like hypodermic needles
  116. Spinnerets on Arachnoidea are used to ______________.
    depliy silk
  117. Decapod means ________.
  118. The carapace of a crustacean covers the ______________.
    cephalothorax(like the upper shell of a turtle)
  119. Which class includes centipedes?
  120. What is the body style of centipedes?
    Made up of segments, each segment has two legs and a flatter body style.
  121. Which class includes millipedes?
  122. What is the body form of millipedes?
    Cylindrical, segmented with two pairs of legs on each segment.
  123. What are characteristics of the head of the superclass Insecta?
    Sense organs and chewing structures.
  124. What are characteristics of the thorax of the superclass Insecta?
    3 pairs of legs, possibly one or two sets of wings
  125. What are characteristics of the abdomen of the superclass Insecta?
    It contains internal organs
  126. What are sclerites in the superclass insecta?
    Plates of chitin that forms the exo skeleton
  127. What is a nymph in superclass insecta?
    The young version of an adult, it looks the same just smaller.
  128. What ecological benefits can be obtained by beginning life as an aquatic larval form, then metamorphing inta a terrestrial adult?
    No competition in feeding.
  129. What is in order Hymenoptera of the superclass insecta?
    Honey bees and ants
  130. What is in order Isoptera of superclass insecta?
  131. What are social insects?
    Insects that live together and carry out specific roles in their community.
  132. What are the three divisions of labor yields castes?


  133. How is cast determined in superclass insecta?
    By the food given in larval stage?
  134. Drones in superclass insecta are developed from _________________.
    unfertilized eggs(haploid)
  135. Queens and workers in superclass insecta are developed from ________________.
    fertilized eggs(diploid)
  136. Queen larvae are given _____________.
    royal jelly
  137. Worker larvae are given _________.
    worker jelly
  138. What inhibits workers from sexual maturation?
    Queen substance(pheremones emitted by the queen)
  139. What is swarming as related to bees?
    When a queen leaves the hive and takes workers with her.
Card Set
Biology 104
Biology 104