Fundamentals-1: Fundamentals of biomolecules

  1. Aldose
    The C=O or carboxyl group is in the first postition
  2. Ketose
    The C=O or carboxyl group is on the 2nd C
  3. Triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose-
    • triose- 3 C
    • pentose- 4C
    • pentose- 5C
    • hexose- 6C

    These can be aldose or ketose sugars
  4. hemiacetal and hemiketal
    • hemiacetal--aldehyde + alcohol
    • hemiketal--keton + alcohol
  5. glycosidic bond
    bond between the anomeric carbon of a carbohydrate and an R group.

    C-O and C-N

    These bonds involve only the anomeric carbon
  6. what is an epimer
    if the optical isomers differ in only one chiral carbon atom configuration
  7. what is an anomer
    the cyclization of a monosaccharide forms 2 new stereoisomers which are called anomers

    This usually happens if the open chain sugar is dissolved in water it will undergo cyclization and give two products that are beta and alpha anomers
  8. what does it mean to be a reducing sugar?
    The OH group is present and free on the anomeric carbon = reducing sugar

    A reducing sugar is one that tests positive with either benedicts(brick red) or tollens testing(silver)

    Aldoses and ketoses are positive reducing sugar

    the sugar is oxcidized and the agent is reduced

    Fructose is a ketone which are very resistant to oxcidation but it can be converted into an intermediate that is then oxcidized so it is refered to as a reducing sugar
  9. mutarotation
    the change in the optical rotation during the formation of the anomers in an quilibrium mixture
  10. glucose, mannose, galactose, glyceraldehyde, sucrose, maltose, lactose, cellobiose
    glyceraldehyde--the simplest of the sugars and assigns configuration to other sugars

    all active sugars have a D conformation

    maltose- alpha 1,4 glycosidic bond, reducing sugar

    Cellobiose- beta 1,4 glycosidic bond, reducing sugar

    Sucrose- alpha1, beta2 glycosidic bond, non-reducing sugar

    lactose- beta 1,4 glycosidic bond, reducing sugar
  11. Structural differences between amylose and amylopectin and glycogen and cellulose
    They are starch, storage form of glucose

    Amylose- has alpha 1,4 linkages

    Amylopectin(major storage form of glucose)- has alpha 1,4 linkages and branches with alpha 1,6 linkages every 24-30 units
  12. Saturated vs. unsaturated fatty acids
  13. what is the structure of a triglyceride?
  14. what are the health risks associated with trans- fatty acids
  15. Name the types of sccharides (sugars)
    monoscacchrides--carbs that cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler carbs

    Oligosacchrides- carbs whose hydrolysis is 2-20 monosaccharides

    disacchrides--carbs that can be hydrolyzed into two monosacchrides, also an oligosacchride

    • polysacchrides(glycans)- carbs whose hydrolysis yields greater than 20 monosacchrides
    • they differ in the mono units, lengthm glycosidic bonds, presence of branching
    • they are insoluble in water
    • if they have a free hydroxyl group on their anomeric carbon they are reducing sugars
  16. becasue there are multiple attachment sites on a single sugar.....
    ....there is a large number of different configurations/ linear and branched/ that can be formed
  17. what is the consequence of carbohydrates have no ionizable groups?
    There are no amino groups or carboxyl groups on a carbohydrate that can accept or donate electrons
  18. Explain L vs D configuration of sugars
    The L is if the carboxyl group is on the left

    • The D is if the carboxl group is on the right
    • all in vivo are D configuration

    The last ciral Carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl carbon is the one that determines whether the sugar is the L or D form
  19. How many sterioisomers are there if there are 6 assymetric carbons?
  20. anomeric carbon
    the hemiacetal or the hemiketal in which the two anomers differ in functional group attachment
  21. Image Upload 1
    alpha-D-glucopyranose and beta-D-glucopyranose with their anomeric carbons
  22. Glycogen
    • storage of glucose in animal cells
    • has the same structure as amylopectin just more linkages usually every 8-10 sugars
  23. cellulose
    glucose units are joined by beta 1,4 glycosidic linkages

    strait chains with hydrogen bonds that help sheets stack on top of each other

    rigid, insoluble structures that the human body cannot digest because we dont make the enzyme cellulase to break it down
Card Set
Fundamentals-1: Fundamentals of biomolecules
Biochem objectives