1. Q: What are general properties of cytokines?
    A: (1) short half-life (2) modulate the immune response (3) produced by/ modulate many types of cells (4) redundant (5) affect other cytokines (6) recognized by specific receptors
  2. Q: What are the cytokines that influence the innate immune system?
    A: (1) interferon alpha/beta (type one interferon) (2) TNF (3) IL-1 (4) IL-6 (5) Chemokines
  3. Q: What cells make INF-alpha and INF-beta (alpha and beta are the type one interferons)?
    A: INF-alpha made by monocytes and macrophages mostly. INF-beta made by all cells
  4. Q: What kind of response do the type I interferones (alpha and beta) cause?
    A: Anti-viral response. Specifically they (1) upregulate Class I MHC and decrease class II MHC and (2) induce enzymes preventing virus replication (make the cell anti-viral)
  5. Q: How is TNF induces and what cells does it come from?
    A: LPS- activation of macrophages by bacterial infection. TNF is present in granules of mast cells (preformed).
  6. Q: Once TNF is released by a cell, it basically elicits one response in the body. T or F
    A: False TNF can elicit two general responses depending on the quantity of TNF released. Localized signaling for low quantities and systemic for higher concentration.
  7. Q: What response is generated from low quantity TNF release?
    A: (1) increase adhesion molecules on endothelium (2) up regulates killing efficiency of neutrophiles and eosinophils. (3) Increase class I MHC expression (4) induce other cells to produce cytokines.
  8. Q: What response is generated from high quantity TNF release?
    A: (1) induces fever as an endogenous pyrogen (2) induces cells to produce IL-1 and IL-6 (3) Increases phagocytosis by increasing acute phase protein production by liver (4) suppresses bone marrow cells from dividing
  9. Q: What stimulates IL-1 production and what does IL-1 do?
    A: Macrophages/monocytes produce IL-1 after TNF, LPS, or IL-1 induction. IL-1 basically does the same functions as TNF. (local inflamm, fever, acute phase proteins etc)
  10. Q: What stimulates IL-6 and what are it's functions?
    A: IL-6 if activated by IL-1 and TNF. It's functions are similar and it also acts to polyclonally activate Be cell differentiation.
  11. Q: What are the cytokines that regulate lymphocyte activation and differentiation?
    A: IL-2; IL-4; TGF-beta; INF-gamma; IL-10; IL-12 (all discussed individually)
  12. Q: What cytokine induces a TH1 T-cell and what does this helper cell do?
    A: IL-12 and IFN-gamma. TH1 cells (1) activate macrophages (2) Induce more T cells (TH1) (3) increase MHC expression on APC's (4) Induce B cells to release opsonins (help macrophages).
  13. Q: What cytokine induces TH2 T-cells and what does this helper cell do?
    A: IL-2 and IL-4; TH2 cells (1) inhibit macrophage activation (2) induce more T cells (TH2) (3) Induce B cells to produce IgE and IgG4.
  14. Q: What makes IL-2 and what are its actions?
    A: Made by most helper T-cells upon activation. It is a T-cell growth factor. (2) it can also act on NK cells increasing killing capacity.
  15. Q: What makes IL-4 and what are its functions?
    A: Product of TH2 T cells and sometimes mast cells. (1) Induce production of IgE (2) block macrophages (anti-iflammatory) (3) mast cell growth factor (4) stim. Expression of adhesion receptors.
  16. Q: What does TGF-beta do?
    A: suppresses the effect of other cytokines (anti-inflammatory)
  17. Q: What produces INF-gamma and what is its function?
    A: Prod. by TH1 T-cells. (1) anti-viral and anti-proliferative (2) activates macrophages (3) upregulate NK and neutrophil function (4) shifts TH0 cells to TH1 upon activation
  18. Q: What makes IL-10 and what are its functions?
    A: Mad eby TH2 cells and mast cells in mucosa. (1) opposite of IFN-gamma (2) inhibits cytokine trascription in macrophages (3) reduces Class II MHC and B7 on macrophages (can't activate T-cells)
  19. Q: What makes IL-12 and what are its functions?
    A: B- cells and monocytes. The receptor is express by NK and T-cells. (TNF-alpha induces IL-12 prod. by macrophages. (1) activates NK (2) commits TH0 to TH1 pathway (3) increases activity/proliferation of CD8 T cells.
  20. Q: What are the cytokines called that influence the development of cells in bone marrow and what are examples?
    A: Colony stimulating factors (growth factors). IL-3, GM-CSF, Macrophage colony stimulating factor, Granulocyte CSF, and IL-7
  21. Q: What is the function of IL-7?
    A: B cell/ T cell growth factor
  22. Q: What does IL-3 do?
    A: Broad activator of bone marrow expansion: prolonged exposure produces mast cells
  23. Q: What does GM-CSF do?
    A: Granulocyte-Monocyte colony stimulating factor (it activates them).
  24. Q: What does granulocyte CSF do?
    A: push cells to granulocyte lineage: neturophil and eosinophils (CSF=colony stimulating factor)
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