Outdoor air pollutants chart

  1. Sources of Carbon Monoxide.
    Incomplete burning of fossil fuels

    Ambient CO is mostly from burning gasoline in cars, trucks.
  2. Sources of Lead
    Leaded gasoline, no longer used in US

    Smelters (industrial processing of metals)
  3. Sources of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
    Burning fossil fuels at high temperatures

    Especially burning fuels in automobiles
  4. Sources of particulate matter
    Burning of wood and diesel fuel.

    Specific industries

    Dirt roads and road construction

  5. Sources of ozone
    Secondary pollutant from NOx and VOCs
  6. Sources of Sulfur Oxides (SOx)
    Burning coal (fossil fuel containing significant amount of S)

    Burning sulfur containing fuel
  7. Sources of VOCs
    Vapors released from:

    Solvents, gas, paints, glues, plants (terpenes)
  8. Human health effects of Carbon Monoxide
    Combines with Hemoglobin, thus reducing its ability to carry O2 to cells.

    Cells must have oxygen for cellular respiration.
  9. Health effects of Lead
    Powerful neurotoxin

    Damages brain and nervous system

    Difficulty in learning, memory, concentration

    Children at special risk.
  10. Health effects of NOx
    Irritates eyes, nose, throat, lungs.

    Increases susceptibility to infection, esp. influenza
  11. Health effects of particulate matter
    Easily inhaled

    Carries toxic materials into the lungs which get absorbed into the bloodstream

    People with heart or lung disease are at an increased risk of premature death.
  12. Health effects of Ozone
    Breathing difficulties

    Headache and Fatigue

    Exacerbates respiratory problems (asthma, COPD)

    Can permanently decrease lung function
  13. Health effects of SOx
    Forms sulfurous smog, which:

    Damages the respiratory tract

    Constricts air passages, causing wheezing, tightness, and shortness of breath.
  14. Environmental effects of Lead
    Harms wildlife
  15. Environmental effects of NOx
    Major precursor to acid rain

    Major precursor to Ozone (photochemical smog)
  16. Environmental effects of Particulate matter
    Source of haze and decreased visibility

    Reduces sunlight from reaching the Earth's surface

    Important condensation nuclei
  17. Environmental effects of Ozone
    Harms plants

    Decreases productivity of plants.
  18. Environmental effects of SOx
    Major precursor to acid rain which:

    Acidifies aquatic ecosystems

    Leaches nutrients from the soil

    Damages foliage and reduces productivity

    Also, it is a precursor to sulfurous smog
  19. Health effects of VOCs
    Many are hazardous air pollutants (Benzene, toluene, formaldehyde)
  20. Environmental effects of VOCs
    Important smog formers, form Ozone
  21. Clean up/controll of Carbon Monoxide
    Catalytic converters use Platinum to make hydrocarbons burn more efficiently

    Result is less CO, but more CO2

    Public transportation, carpools, walking

    Less driving

    Oxygenized fuel mixtures
  22. Clean up/control of Lead
    Leaded gas has been phased out, leading to a significant decrease of airborne lead

    Lead is still found in the environment and is a public health issue
  23. Clean up/control of NOx
    Catalytic converter

    Change air to fuel ratio

    Specific methods to reduce gasoline use: more efficient vehicles, public transportation
  24. Clean up/control of Particulate matter
    Settling chambers

    Bag filters

    Electrostatic precipitators

    Cover waste piles, vegetate area
  25. Clean up/control of Ozone
    Control sources of NOx
  26. Clean up/control of SOx
    Burn low sulfur coal

    Specific methods to improve coal efficiency and conservation so less coal is needed.

    Use calcium:

    Flue gas scrubbing

    Fluidized Bed Combustion

    Limestone injection
Card Set
Outdoor air pollutants chart
Outdoor air pollutant chart