1. Ethnopharmacology
    The study of drug responses that may be unique to an individual due to social, cultural, and biologic phenomena
  2. Pharmacokinetics
    The process of of drug movement in the body to achieve drug action and ultimately elimination
  3. Pharmacodynamics
    Drug concentrations and their effects on the body
  4. Pharmacogenetics
    The effect of a drug that varies from the predicted response due to genetic factors
  5. Ethnopharmacolgy highlights:
    The need for nurses to utilize knowledge from the social sciences as well as the biologic and physical sciences to provide holistic nursing care
  6. Culture
    Sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of a community
  7. Community
    A cluster of individuals who function as a group to attain cultural universals
  8. Cultural universals
    Designed to meet the communities survival needs and common goals such as obtainment of food and continuance of practices that serve to maintain thegrouptm
  9. Ethnic group
    Defined according to shared languages, shared religions, shared customs, and shared histories.
  10. Ethnocentrism
    The widespread human tendency to perceive the ways of doing things in ones own culture as normal and natural and the ways of other cultures as strange , inferior or possibly even unnatural or inhuman
  11. Madeleine leininger
    Formalized the concept of transcultural nursing


    Founded transcultural nursing society 1974
  12. Traditional health practices
    Folk medicine include use of teas, herbs, spices, and special foods
  13. The use of traditional health practices
    Can have a neutral, beneficial, deleterious effect on a clients health status.
  14. Assimilation
    When a less powerful group changes it's ways to blend in with the dominant cultural group.
  15. Complementary health practices
    Combine traditional beliefs and mainstream health practices.
  16. Alternative health practices
    A dominant group adopts health practices from a non dominant group.
  17. Complementary
    Using a new therapy along with a mainstream therapy already in use.
  18. Alternative health care
    Using a new therapy in place of a mainstream therapy
  19. Transcultural assessment model
    Developed by giger and davidhizar in 2008.

    Assumes all cultures have 6 cultural phenomena
  20. 1. Communication
    • Occurs verbally and non verbally.
    • Necessary for sustaining human life.
  21. Different types of communication
    Language, vernacular English, greetings.
  22. Language
    Use of language besides English poses a challenge to many nurses

    Translators should be used
  23. Vernacular english
    Any still of English that varies from standard English

    It can lead to misunderstanding by the nurse
  24. Greetings
    All cultures have prescribed norms for greeting and addressing other persons
  25. European
    Direct eye contact, moderate-loud voice, no silence, uses many words to describe symptoms, large amount of personal space, values privacy, low touching, small families, extended family usually lives far distance away, individualism, future oriented, healthy behaviors prevent illness,
  26. African
    Direct eye contact, moderate-loud voice, no periods of silence, small amount of personal space, moderate amount of touching, small families,
  27. Latin and native Americans
    No direct eye contact with authoritative position, degrees of comfort with silence, small amount of personal space, value-light touching, large extended families, include family i care, present oriented, spiritually oriented, Christian,
  28. Asian
    No direct eye contact with authoritative persons, low volume, periods of silence ok, small personal space, little touching in public, family size varies, include present oriented, non Christian, reincarnation,
  29. Space
    • Amount of space is an important psychological consideration
    • Americans require large deal of space
  30. Major challenge of space
    • The use of touch and the protection of modesty.
    • Added concern when the clients gender is diff from the nurse.
  31. Groups affected
    Muslim, orthodox Jewish, Roma communities.
  32. Social organization
    Groups organized according to a social order that is perceived to facilitate the functioning of the group.
  33. Basic social unit

    Include family whenever u can
  34. Time
    Perception of time is largely shaped by culture
  35. Future oriented
    Perception of time are more likely to be concerned with long term health outcomes

    Leads to greater adherence of medication at scheduled times
  36. Present oriented
    More likely to discontinue mainstream prescriptive therapies when they are well
  37. Biological variations
    Pharmacogenetics- effect of a drug that varies from the predicted response due to genetic factors
  38. Assessment
    Assess ethnocultural and racial background

    Pg 121
  39. Planning
    Collaborate with client to reduce high risk health behaviors

    Ex. Client will effectively manage health care
  40. Nursing intervention
    Incorporate non harmful traditional and folk practices with biomedical prescriptions
  41. Client teaching
    • Involve family in teaching about prescriptive therapies.
    • Provide health information written so client can understand.
    • Use illustrations if needed
  42. Evaluation
    Client correctly demonstrates understanding of prescriptive therapies and treatments.
Card Set
Kee phamacology chapter 7