Chapter 14,Blood

  1. What is the percentage of solids in a sample of human blood?
  2. How would a women with Rh- blood have anti- Rh antibodies in her blood?
    Rh+ erythrocytes were previously introduced into her blood
  3. What blood cells help provide a defense against diesease organisms?
    Leukocytes aka white blood cells
  4. What happens to heme after hemoglobin is broken down into heme and globin?
    It is removed by the liver as bile pigments
  5. A decrease in blood oxygen increases the release of ------- from the kidneys and liver, and it stimulates the production of ------ by the bone marrow.
    erythropoietin: erythrocyes
  6. What is the term for phagocytic leukocytes(WBC) leaving the blood vessels and entering the tissue spaces?
  7. When performing a blood transfusion what must be considered concerning the donor and the recipient?
    The antigens of the donor and the antibodies of the recipient.
  8. A person with B blood has which antigens and anti-bodies?
    • B antigens
    • Anti- A antibodies
  9. Cytoplasmic fragments of cells
  10. The preferred blood type for transfusing a person with A Rh- is -----, but when it is unavaiable, blood type ----- may be used.
    • A Rh-;
    • O Rh-
    • Rh- can only use Rh-
  11. Iron is stored in the form of ----- in the liver.
  12. What is the normal percentage level of hematocrit in females?
  13. What is the most abundant component of blood plasma?
  14. What is the precursor to all blood cells?
  15. Plasma protiens that are important to our body's defense are called:
    gamma globulins
  16. A deficiencey of folic acid and vitamin B12 decreases RBC production by:
    decreasing the synthesis of DNA molecules
  17. RBC are regulated by what hormone?
  18. Which blood components transport the most gas?
    Erythrocytes aka Red blood cells
  19. What are the three functions of blood?
    • 1.Transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, and waste.
    • 2.Regulation of Ph and body temp.
    • 3.Protection against harmful organisms and blood clotting.
  20. What are the 2 components that make up blood? What are the percentages of blood volume they account for?
    • 1.Plasma, 55%
    • 2. Formed elements, 45%
  21. What are the 3 formed elements in blood?
    • 1. Erythrocytes
    • 2. Leukocytes
    • 3. Platelets/ Thrombocytes
  22. What is the function of Erythrocytes? What percentage of formed elements do they account for?
    Erythrocytes transport gases through the blood, they account for 99% of formed elements.
  23. What is the function of Leukocytes?
    Leukocytes help defend the body against microorganisms and toxins.
  24. What is the fuction of Thrombocytes? How are thrombocytes described?
    Thrombocytes help in blood clotting. They are cellular fragments.
  25. What are the three physical characteristics of blood?
    • 1. Volume, about 5 liters
    • 2. Viscous fluid
    • 3. Ph range, 7.35-7.45, slightly alkaline
  26. What is the Hematocrit(HCT)/ Packed Cell Volume(PCV)?
    A test used to measure RBC/Erythrocytes.
  27. What are normal percentage values for men and women in a hematocrit?
    • female-37-47%
    • male- 40-54%
  28. What is the morphology of RBC and why is it important? Give 3 reasons
    • Bioconcave disks
    • 1. larger surface area for faster gas diffusion
    • 2. rouleaux (stacking)
    • 3. deformability, elastic and flexible to enter small capillaries
  29. How much hemoglobin (by volume) is in each RBC? What isthe function of hemoglobin?
    • about 1/3
    • It is the iron containing pigment in RBC that give blood it's color
  30. If there was an issue with hemoglobin synthesis what would be noiticed on the RBC stain?
    An increased area of Central Pallor, or larger center
  31. What are the normal values of hemoglobin for females and males?
    • female- 12-16 gm per 100ml of whole blood
    • male- 14-18 gm per 100ml of blood
  32. What compound is formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin? What color is it?
    Oxyhemoglobin, bright red
  33. What is Deoxyhemoglobin? What color is it?
    When hemoglobin releases oxygen, bluish apperance
  34. Cyanosis
    Result of an increase of deoxyhemoglobin that causes bluish color of skin and mucous membrane
  35. What does a mature blood cell lack and why is that a good thing?
    • nuclei and mitochondria. depends on glcolysis, no mitosis or cell synthesis
    • It is good because no oxygen gets absorbed by RBC
  36. What are normal RBC counts in females and males?
    • females-4.2-5.4 million per mm3
    • male- 4.6-6.2 million per mm3
  37. What is the average life span of a RBC?
    120 days
  38. What cell phagocytizes RBC?
  39. What happens to hemoglobin when realeased from phagocytized RBC?
    It is broken down into heme and globin
  40. What happens to the heme part of hemoglobin when realesed?
    • It becomes iron and biliverdin.
    • the iron bonds with transferrin, gets transfered to bone marrow, and begins producing more hemoglobin.
    • biliverdin(greenish) converts to bilirubin(orange)and gets excretedfrom liver as bile
  41. What is iron calles when stores in the liver?
  42. What is Jaundice?
    yellowness of skin, white of eyes, mucous membranes, and body fluids due to depositing of bile pigments from excess amounts of Bilirubin in the blood
  43. What happens to the globin part of hemoglobin once it is realeased from RBC?
    It is the protien portion of blood that gets degraded to amino acids to be reused or catabolized
  44. What is Hemstopoiesis and where does it occur?
    Hematopoiesis is RBC production and occurs in the red bone marrow
  45. What is the cell order for RBC in Erythropoesis?
    • Hemocytoblast(Stem Cell)
    • Proerythroblast
    • Erythroblast
    • Normoblast
    • Reticulocyte
    • Erythrocyte(Mature red blood cell)
  46. What hormone regulates RBC production?
  47. What triggers Erythropoietin release?
    low oxygen levels.
  48. What vitimains affect RBC production?
    B12 and folic acid
  49. What is the function of Leukocytes?
    defend against pathogens
  50. What is positive chemotaxis?
    when WBC are attracted to chemicals released by damaged cells or bacteris that are multiplying.. Results in a large number of WBC in an inflamed area.
  51. What are the two types of Leukocytes?
    • Granulocytes-has granules in cytoplasm
    • Agranulocytes- no granules in cytoplasm
  52. What are three types of Leukocytes? colors with what dye type? nucleus lobes?
    • 1. neutrophils(polymorpho-nuclear leukocytes/PMN), lavander in netural, 2-5 lobes
    • 2. Eosinophils, Red/Orange with acid dye Eosin, Bilobed
    • 3. Basophils, Blue/violet with basic dye. bilobed
  53. Where do granulocytes develop?
    In red bone marrow from hemocytoblasts
  54. What are the two types of Agranulocytes?
    Monocytes and Lymphoctyes
  55. What is the largest WBC?
    Monocytes, they are 2-3 times larger than RBC's
  56. What are normal WBC counts?
    from 4500 to 10000 per mm3 of blood
  57. What is Leukocytosis?
    High WBC count(above 10000), indicates infection, vigorous exercise, or excessive loss of body fluids
  58. What is Leukopenia?
    WBC bleow 5000, associated with viral infections, lead and arsenic poisoning
  59. What is differential WBC count(DIFF)?
    Shows the percentages of leukocytes present in a blood sample
  60. What is the correct orderof leukocytes in a blood sample from most common to least common?
    • Neutrphils_54%-62%
    • Lymphocytes_25%-33%
    • Monocytes- 3%-9%
    • Eosinophils- 1%-3%
    • Basophils- Less than 1%
    • Never Let Monkeys Eat Bannannas
  61. Which WBC are used to phagocyize foreign particles?
    Neutrophils for smaller particles and Monocytes for larger particles
  62. Which WBC helps in allergic reactions, increases during a parasitic infection, and inactivates Histamine?
  63. Which WBC releases Heparin( an anticoagulant) and Histamine?
  64. Which WBC is involves in antibody formation?
  65. The hemoglobin within erythrocytes plays a major role in the transport of ________ by the blood.
  66. Oxyhemoglobin is ______ in color, whereas deoxyhemoglobin is ______ in color.
    bright red; bluish
  67. Which blood components transport most of the gases?
  68. A large majority of the proteins found in plasma are produced by the __________.
  69. Hemostasis involves three mechanisms to prevent blood loss. These include all but which of the following?

    A. Agglutination
  70. Plasma proteins that are important in our body's defense are referred to as the:
    gamma gobulins
  71. The function of hemoglobin is to
    transport oxygen
  72. As a platelet plug forms, platelets release a vasoconstricting substance called:
  73. The most active Phagocytic Cells found in circulating blood are:
    Neutrophils and Monocytes
  74. The cells from which white blood cells are derived are called
  75. A person with blood type AB possesses ________ on the cell membrane of his/her erythrocytes
    Antigens A and B
  76. Red blood cell production is regulated by the hormone
  77. If a person has only B antigens on their RBCs, they have blood type:
  78. Platelets are best described as
    cytoplasmic fragments of cells.
  79. Identify the blood type that is the "universal donor".
  80. Identify the giant cells that are located in the red bone marrow and they give rise to thrombocytes.

    A. megakaryocytes
  81. The nutrient(s) required for the production of hemoglobin include

    C. all of these choices are correct
  82. Which of the following is a precursor to all blood cells?

    B. Hemocytoblast
  83. Which of the following is not a formed element?

    A. plasma
  84. Which of the following does NOT belong with the others?

    D. globin
  85. Iron is stored in the liver in the form of _____.
  86. Mature ________ are the most abundant of the formed elements.
  87. In a given volume of blood, about ________% is plasma and ________% is formed elements.
    55; 45
  88. Erythrocytes are formed from stem cells called:
  89. In the human adult, red blood cells are normally produced in the:
    red bone marrow
  90. The normal level for hematocrit in females is
  91. Red blood cells live around _____ before they disintegrate or are targeted for destruction by Macrophages.
    120 days
  92. A primary function of eosinophils is to
    respond to parasitic infections
  93. A person with B blood type has:
    B antigens on their red blood cells and anti-a antibodies in their plasma
  94. Which of the following is a precursor to all blood cells?
  95. Blood platelets

    E. all of the above are correct
  96. Which of the following is/are correct concerning granulocytes?

    D. all of the above
  97. The enzyme ________ converts fibrinogen into strands of ________, which form a blood clot.
    thrombin; fibrin
  98. What is the difference between serum and plasma?
    Plasma contains fibrinogen; serum does not.
  99. After hemoglobin is broken down into heme and globin, what ultimately happens to the heme?
    It is removed by the liver as bile pigments.
  100. As a platelet plug forms, platelets release a vasoconstricting substance called:
  101. ___________ for approximately 60% of the plasma proteins and are active in maintaining osmotic pressure of blood.
  102. ________ are leukocytes that migrate into tissues and become macrophages.
  103. The average amount of blood in an adult is _____ L.
  104. Damaged or old red blood cells are removed by the liver and _____.
  105. Myeloid leukemia can be evidenced by an increase in _____.

    B) neutrophils
  106. Which protein functions in coagulation?

    A) fibrinogen
  107. Newborn babies would have difficulty removing bile pigments because of their immature livers.

  108. The percentage of blood cells in whole blood is called _____.

    B) hematocrit
  109. The buffy coat evidenced by separating blood cells is comprised of _____.

    D) platelets and leukocytes
  110. Which blood components transport most of the gases?

    C) erythrocytes
  111. Each red cell contains about _____% of its volume as the pigment hemoglobin.

    A) 33 or 1/3
  112. Which of the following is an agranulocyte?

    D) monocyte
  113. Which condition is characterized by an abnormal increase in red blood cell count?

    B) polycythemia
  114. Which condition is caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12?

    C) pernicious anemia
  115. Which cells are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes?

    B) neutrophils
  116. Which cells are the rarest leukocytes?

    A) basophils
  117. Which organ has the greatest role in synthesizing most blood nutrients?

    C) liver
  118. When red blood cells are worn out, part of their components are recycled while others are
    disposed. Which is incorrect

    C) The greenish pigment, biliverdin, is recycled to the bone marrow.
  119. Which dietary component(s) is/are needed for DNA synthesis, and thus greatly influence the production of red blood cells?

    A) vitamin B12 and folic acid
  120. The type of white blood cell that is often the first to arrive at the site of infection is a granulocyte and contains granules that stains light purple is a

    D) neutrophil
  121. Which cell has no nucleus when it is mature?

    D) erythrocyte
  122. Which of these did NOT develop from a myeloblast?

    D) monocyte
  123. Which white blood cells are the most common?

    D) neutrophils
  124. Which leukocytes are the largest in the peripheral blood?

    A) monocytes
  125. Which leukocyte does NOT have phagocytic properties?

    B) lymphocyte
  126. The condition called _____ is evidenced by a DIFF over 10,000 per cubic mm of whole blood.

    C) leukocytosis
  127. Which of the following is a probable cause of leukocytosis?

    D) appendicitis
  128. The _____ cells are actively involved with allergies.

    A) eosinophil
  129. The _____ cells are the usual sources of heparin.

    B) basophil
  130. Which cells release antibodies into the circulation?

    B) lymphocytes
  131. Which components are the source of serotonin which causes smooth muscle cells to contract?

    A) platelets
  132. What is the most common component in the plasma?

    D) water
  133. How much of the plasma is protein?

    C) 7%, because 92% is water
  134. Which is the most abundant of the plasma proteins?

    A) albumin
  135. What is the most significant factor that helps maintain blood osmotic pressure?

    B) albumin
  136. Which molecules are the sources of most antibodies?

    C) gamma globulin
  137. Which mineral is essential for coagulation to occur?

    B) Ca2+
  138. Which chemical initiates the extrinsic phase of clotting?

    D) thromboplastin
  139. Which of the following is NOT always present in the blood?

    A) thrombin
  140. What converts fibrinogen to fibrin?

    C) thrombin
  141. Which is the last molecule to appear in a clotting reaction?

    A) fibrin
  142. Which of these can dissolve a blood clot?

    A) plasmin
  143. Which is the rarest ABO blood type?

    B) AB
  144. Select the statement about red blood cells that is incorrect.

    D) Deoxyhemoglobin is saturated with oxygen.
  145. The largest cells in the blood that leave the bloodstream to become macrophages are the _______________.

    D) monocytes
  146. A person with eosinophilia, or greater than normal numbers of eosinophils, is most likely suffering from?

    A) allergies or internal parasites
  147. An acute infection would show up in a blood count as ______________.

    B) leukocytosis
  148. Which plasma proteins help transport lipids in the bloodstream?

    D) alpha and beta globulins
  149. Choose the correct order for the steps of hemostasis.

    D) blood vessel spasm, platelet plug formation, blood coagulation
  150. Which clotting factor is released from damaged tissue, and initiates a chain of clotting events?

    A) tissue thromboplastin
  151. Which blood cell can be described as being a biconcave disc?

    A) erythrocyte
  152. Which of the following does NOT belong with the others?

    C) serum
  153. Which of the following indicates a normal white blood cell count?

    D) 10,000 per mm3
  154. Which of these cell types should NOT be grouped with the others?

    C) lymphocyte
  155. The percentage of solids in a sample of human blood is normally about:
  156. A deficiency of folic acid and vitamin B12 decreases RBC production by
    decreasing the synthesis of DNA molecules.
  157. Which blood cells help provide a defense against disease organisms.
  158. Identify the giant cells that are located in the red bone marrow and they give rise to thrombocytes.
  159. What is a Thrombocytes usual cell count?
    130,000 to 360,000 per mm3 of blood
  160. Do platelets have a nucleus?
  161. What substance do platelets release that causes vasoconstrication?
  162. What is serum? What does it help with?
    The clear fluid portion of clotted blood that helps maintain PH stability and transport nutrients and gases.
  163. What proteins have been removed from serum?
  164. What are the major components of blood plasma?
    • water 92%
    • plasma proteins 7%
    • plasma nutrients
    • gases
    • nonprotein nitrogenous substances
    • electrolytes
    • hormones
  165. What are the 3 major groups of plasma proteins? What are the percentages?
    • Albumins 60%
    • globulins 36%
    • fribinogen 4%
  166. Which plasma protein helps maintain osmotic pressure of blood?
  167. Where is Albumin synthesized?
    In the liver
  168. What are the 2 types of globulins?
    • gamma
    • alpha and beta
  169. Where are gamma globuins synthesized? What is the function of gamma globuins?
    • Lymphatic tissue
    • Contain proteins that function as antibodies
  170. Where are alpha and beta globuins synthesized? What is the function of alpha and beta globuins?
    • Liver
    • Transportation of lipids and fat soluble vitamins
  171. Where is fibinogen synthesizes and what is it's function?
    • Liver
    • involved in blood clotting
  172. What are the 3 nutrients found in plasma?
    • glucose
    • amino acids
    • plasma lipids
  173. What gases are found in plasma?
    • oxygen
    • carbon dioxide
    • nitrogen
  174. What are nonprotein nitrogenous substances?
    molecules that contain nitrogen but are not proteins
  175. What 5 nonprotein nitrogenous substances are found on plasma? What are they the product of?
    • amino acids, product of protein digestion
    • urea, product of protein catabolism
    • uric acid, product of nucleic acid catabolism
    • creatinine, waste of crestine
    • creatine, stores energy
  176. What is the difference between platelet adhesion and aggulation?
    • adhesion is platelets adhereing to CT
    • aggulation is platelets adhereing to platelets
  177. Would platelet plugs be effective in larger vessel breakage? Why or why not?
    • No
    • they are to small and would be washed out as soon as they were formed
  178. What is the most effective means of hemostasis?
    Blood coagulation
  179. What is the basic event of coagulation?
    The conversion of plasma protein fibrinogen into fibrin
  180. What triggers extrinsic clotting mechanisms?
    damaged blood vessels or tissues
  181. What do damaged tissues release that initiates the series of blood clotting reactions?
    tissue thromplastin
  182. When does intrisic clotting occur?
    In the absence of tissue damage
  183. What gets activated by foreign particles during intrinsic clotting?
    Hageman factor
  184. What protein can destroy a blood clot?
  185. What does the term thrombus mean?
    A stationary blood clot that remains in the blood vessel
  186. What does the term embolus mean?
    a clot that is moving through the blood vessel
  187. What ion is needed for blood clotting to occur?
  188. What helps convert fibrinogen to fibrin
  189. What are antigens and where are they found? Where do they come from?
    • proteins that are found on the surface of RBC
    • they are inherited
  190. Where are antibodies located and when do they appear?
    • dissolved in the plasma
    • they are formed from 2-8 months of age
  191. What is agglutination?
    clumping of RBC in response to antigen and an antibody
  192. Antigen + Antibody=
  193. What antigen and antibody does someone with A blood have?
    • A antigen
    • anti-B antibodies
  194. What antigen and antibody does someone with B blood have?
    • antigen B
    • Anti-A antibodies
  195. What antigen and antibody does someone with AB blood have?
    • Both A and B antigens
    • no antibodies
  196. What antigen and antibody does someone with Oblood have?
    • Neither A or B antigens
    • Both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
  197. Which blood type is the universal donor? recipient?
    • donor=O
    • recipient=AB
  198. Where are the genes for ABO blood type located?
    chromosome 9
  199. What is genotype?
    refers to genetic makeup
  200. What is phenotype?
    refers to physical traits
  201. What is the most important antigen in the Rh factor group?
  202. What gene contains the RH factor antigen genetic info?
    Chromosome 1
Card Set
Chapter 14,Blood
Anatomy and Physiology 2, Blood