1. Internal
    • in the 1800’s based on the ideas of Alexander Hamilton, and
    • later carried out by presidents later in the century, which consisted of high tariffs
    • to support the internal improvements such as road-building, and a national bank
    • to encourage productive enterprise and form a national currency. Main person
    • responsible for internal improvement was Albert Gallatin who wanted to push cash
    • subsides and American manufacturing to boost economic growth. The main reason
    • for road-building was the need for decent transportation of agricultural
    • commodities, which was to be paid for by government funding. What came of this
    • was water transportation via steam boats and the use of canals.
  2. Nullification
    • is a legal theory that a U.S. State has the right to
    • nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional.
    • One of the earliest and most famous examples is to be found in the Kentucky and
    • Virginia Resolutions in 1798 and 1799, a protest against the Alien and Sedition
    • Acts. In these resolutions, authors Thomas Jefferson and James Madison argued
    • that the states are the ultimate interpreters of the Constitution and can
    • "interpose" to protect state citizens from the operation of
    • unconstitutional national laws.
  3. Transcendentalism
    • was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture,
    • and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century,
    • sometimes called American
    • transcendentalism to distinguish it from other uses of the word.
    • Transcendentalism began as a protest against the general state of culture and society.
    • Among transcendentalists' core beliefs was an ideal spiritual state that
    • 'transcends' the physical and empirical and is only realized through the
    • individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established
    • religions. Prominent transcendentalists included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt
    • Whitman, Fredrick Henry Hedge, and much more.
  4. Speculators
    • A person who trades derivatives, commodities, bonds, equities
    • or currencies with a higher-than-average risk in return for a
    • higher-than-average profit potential. Speculators take large risks, especially
    • with respect to anticipating future price movements, in the hope of making
    • quick, large gains. The would buy $500 bonds from people who needed the money NOW for $50.
    • A potential profit in the 1800’s for many speculators was
    • the western land for expansion, even to Alexander Hamilton, the US secretary of
    • treasury.specie circular
  5. Tariff
    of Abominations
    • the Tariff of 1828,
    • was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern
    • detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy.
    • This tariff was part of a series of tariffs that began after the War of 1812,
    • when the blockade of Europe led British manufacturers to offer goods in America
    • at prices American manufacturers often could not match. Southern opponents
    • generally felt that the protective features of tariffs were harmful to southern
    • agrarian interests and claimed they were unconstitutional because they favored
    • one sector of the economy over another. Vice president, Calhoun, fought for the
    • Southerners for the Nullification of this bill. However, this issue was left
    • hanging and not solved for the next decade or two.
  6. States’
    • refers to the political powers that U.S. states
    • possess in relation to the federal government, as guaranteed by the Tenth
    • Amendment of the Bill of Rights. State’s Rights come up time and time again
    • during controversy tariffs and Acts. When the Federalists passed the Alien and
    • Sedition Acts in 1798, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky
    • and Virginia Resolutions, which provide a classic statement in support of
    • states' rights. Another states' rights dispute occurred over the War of 1812.
    • The states voiced opposition to President James Madison and the war, and
    • discussed secession from the Union. One major and continuous strain on the
    • union, from roughly 1820 through the Civil War, was the issue of trade and tariffs.
    • In 1828, the Congress passed protective tariffs to benefit trade in the
    • northern states, but that were detrimental to the South, this were known as the
    • “Tariff of Abominations”.
  7. Henry
    • was a nineteenth-century American statesman and orator who
    • represented Kentucky in both the Senate and the House of Representatives, where
    • he served as Speaker. He was a dominant figure in both the first and Second
    • Party Systems. He favored war with Britain and played a significant role in
    • leading the nation to war in 1812. He was a major supporter of the American
    • System, fighting for an increase in tariffs to foster industry in the United
    • States, the use of federal funding to build and maintain infrastructure, and a
    • strong national bank. In the 1824 election, he gave his presidential votes to
    • John Quincy Adams to give him the lead in the running against Jackson who was
    • favored to win. Doing so would make him the Secretary of Defense.
  8. Second
    Bank of the United States
    • – chartered in 1816, five years after the First Bank of the
    • United States lost its own charter. The Second Bank was chartered by many of
    • the same congressmen who in 1811 had refused to renew the charter of the
    • original Bank of the United States. The predominant reason that the Second Bank
    • of the United States was chartered was that in the War of 1812, the U.S.
    • experienced severe inflation and had difficulty in financing military
    • operations. A major person against this Bank was President Andrew Jackson. The
    • Second Bank of the United States thrived from the tax revenue that the federal
    • government regularly deposited. Jackson struck at this vital source of funds in
    • 1833 by instructing his Secretary of the Treasury to deposit federal tax
    • revenues in state banks. The Second Bank of the United States soon began to
    • lose money and closes in 1841.
  9. Election
    of 1832
    Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson ran, Jackson won presidency and interprets win as favoring his position on National Bank Jackson is against the The Second Bank of the US and uses the election as a way to kill it. He underminded the power of the central government to control the economy, which lead to a panic or depression of the 1830's.
  10. Trail
    of Tears
    • wars the relocation and movement of Native Americans,
    • including many members of the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations
    • among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory.
    • Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while en
    • route to their destinations, and many died, including 4,000 of the 15,000
    • relocated Cherokee. Andrew Jackson was the first U.S. President to implement
    • removal of the Native Americans with the passage of the Indian Removal Act of
    • 1830.
  11. Virginia
    & Kentucky Resolutions
    • were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, (late 1790s)
    • respectively, in favor of states' rights. They were written secretly by Vice
    • President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. The resolutions opposed the
    • federal Alien and Sedition Acts that extended the powers of the federal
    • government. They argued that the Constitution was a "compact" or
    • agreement among the states. Therefore, the federal government had no right to
    • exercise powers not specifically delegated to it and that if the federal
    • government assumed such powers, acts under them would be void. So, states could
    • decide the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress. Created a greater political divide. Passed by republicans (ant-federalists)
  12. Electoral
    Created in 1787 by the Constituion. Electoral college states generally determined by representation in house and senate will send electors (delegates) to elect the president. The president has to win majority of the elecotoral college vores. This underminds the power of individual voters and prevents the masses from having too much power in politics; example of class distinctions in Constitution.
  13. Shays’
    • was an armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts
    • from 1786 to 1787. The rebellion is named after Daniel Shays, a veteran of the American
    • Revolution who led the rebels, known as "Shaysites" or
    • "Regulators". Most of Shays' compatriots were poor farmers angered by
    • crushing debt and taxes. Failure to repay such debts often resulted in
    • imprisonment in debtor's prisons or the claiming of property by the government.
    • Seeking debt relief through the issuance of paper currency and lower taxes, they
    • attempted to prevent the courts from seizing property from indebted farmers by
    • forcing the closure of courts in western Massachusetts.
    • Shays' Rebellion produced fears that the Revolution’s democratic impulse
    • had gotten out of hand.
  14. Articles
    of Confederation
    • was the first constitution of the United States of America
    • and legally established the union of the states 1787. Under the Articles the states
    • retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically
    • relinquished to the central government. "federalists", felt that the Articles lacked
    • the necessary provisions for a sufficiently effective government.
    • Fundamentally, a federation was sought to replace the confederation. Ultimately,
    • the Articles were replaced by the United States Constitution on June 21, 1788.
  15. Alexander
    • (1780's- 1790's)was the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, under George Washington.Federalist Party formed to support his
    • policies. He was the creator of the National Bank, which was opened in 1791 as
    • part of his financial plan for the United States after the Revolutionary War.
    • Hamilton was a nationalist who emphasized strong central (federal)government and
    • successfully argued that the implied powers of the Constitution could be used
    • to fund the national debt, assume state debts, and create the government-owned
    • Bank of the United States. These programs were funded primarily by a tariff on
    • imports and a highly controversial whiskey tax. Funding and assumption advocated taxation (liquor tax)
  16. Charles
    • Wrote An Economic Interpratation fo the Constitution in 1913 His works included radical
    • re-evaluation of the founding fathers of the United States, who he believed
    • were more motivated by economics. To preserve their own class interests of the wealthy owner and businessmen Charles
    • Beard presented evidence that the framers of the Constitution were less
    • interested in furthering democratic principles than in protecting private
    • property and the interests of the wealthy class and preseveing their own political and economic power.Class and Conflict He was the first the write about the Constitiution as a reflection on economic and class politics, example of division, he changed the way modern people think of the constitution.
  17. Removal
    • Part of a United States government policy known as Indian
    • removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26, 1830. The
    • Removal Act was strongly supported in the South, where states were eager to
    • gain access to lands inhabited by the "Five Civilized Tribes". In
    • particular, Georgia, the largest state at that time, was involved in a
    • contentious jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokee nation. President Jackson
    • hoped removal would resolve the Georgia crisis. The Indian Removal Act was also
    • very controversial. While Native American removal was supposed to be voluntary,
    • great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.
    • Most observers, whether they were in favor of the Indian removal policy or not,
    • realized that the passage of the act meant the inevitable removal of most
    • Indians from the states. This inevitably began the Trail of Tears.
  18. Tecumseh
    • Shawnee leader, Wanted to side with the British during
    • War of 1812, Said the native Americans should fight with the British because
    • the white Americans moving into more and more native lands and sees War of 1812
    • as a way to strike back—doesn’t work out that way. Significance: turns Americans
    • opinion even more against the Native Americans. Direct consequences- 1816
    • Native Americans forced to sign treaties that give up land—creates
    • preconditions for removal and gives Andrew Jackson reason to slaughter a bunch
    • of Native Americans, killed 800 creek in one engagement—builds his
    • notoriety. LEADS American government to
    • go against the native Americans
  19. Whiskey
    • was a resistance movement in the western part of the United
    • States in the 1790s, during the presidency of George Washington. The conflict
    • was rooted in western dissatisfaction with various policies of the
    • eastern-based national government. The name of the uprising comes from the Whiskey
    • Act of 1791, an excise tax on whiskey that was a central grievance of the
    • westerners. The tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's
    • program to centralize and fund the national debt. The Whiskey Rebellion
    • demonstrated that the new national government had the willingness and ability
    • to suppress violent resistance to its laws. The whiskey excise remained
    • difficult to collect, however. The events contributed to the formation of
    • political parties in the United States. The whiskey tax was repealed after Thomas
    • Jefferson's Republican Party came to power in 1800.
  20. Specie
    • was an executive
    • order issued by President Andrew Jackson in 1836(1830s) .It required payment for government land to be in hard currency (gold and silver)
    • The Act was a reaction to the growing concerns about excessive speculations of
    • land after the Indian removal, which was mostly done with soft currency. Speculators paid
    • for these purchases with depreciating paper money. While government
    • law already demanded that land purchases be completed with specie or paper
    • notes from specie-backed banks, a large portion of buyers used paper money from
    • state banks not backed by hard money. On July 11, 1836, Jackson the Specie Circular, he funded the states with 10mil. Significance for the expansion to the west and for land grabbing. Attempt to banks for printing money.
  21. Virginia
    Plan/New Jersey plan
    • the Virginia Plan proposed a very powerful bicameral
    • legislature. Both houses of the legislature would be determined
    • proportionately. The lower house would be elected by the people, and the upper
    • house would be elected by the lower house. The executive would exist solely to
    • ensure that the will of the legislature was carried out and would therefore be
    • selected by the legislature. The Virginia Plan also created a judiciary, and gave
    • both the executive and some of the judiciary the power to veto, subject to
    • override. After the Virginia Plan was introduced, New Jersey delegate William
    • Paterson asked for an adjournment to contemplate the Plan. Under the Articles
    • of Confederation, each state had equal representation in Congress, exercising
    • one vote each. The Virginia Plan threatened to limit the smaller states' power
    • by making both houses of the legislature proportionate to population. On 14 and
    • 15 June 1787, a small-state caucus met to create a response to the Virginia
    • Plan. The result was the New Jersey Plan, otherwise known as the "Small
    • State Plan.
  22. Impressment
    • was the act of compelling men to serve in a navy by force
    • and without notice.The Royal Navy impressed many British merchant sailors, as well as some sailors
    • from other nations. People liable to impressment were eligible men of seafaring habits between the ages of 18 and 45 years,
    • though, non-seamen were impressed as well. The impressment of seamen from
    • American ships caused serious tensions between Britain and the United States in
    • the years leading up to the War of 1812. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814,
    • Britain ended the practice, and never resumed it. The british navy is low and recruits and soilders because they would go awall an American ships so the British believe that the U.S was aiding those soilder so they stated impressment, they would stop ships and pull people out to force them to become saliors wheather they were British or not.
  23. Hartford
    • 1814, held at Hartford Connecticut, want to secede because
    • they thought the constitution failed them, War of 1812, Western Expansion
    • undermine NE influence and thought Constitution did not protect their
    • interests. First time that states in US claiming they have right to secede.
    • State believe they have the right to remove themselves from the union. And belived that us should weaken the central Govn't.
  24. George
    Washington’s Farewell Address
    • In “As They Said it”, it shares the
    • speech’s paragraphs 31 – 43, concerning Foreign Relations, The Dangers of
    • Permanent Foreign Alliances, and Free Trade. Washington advocates a policy of good
    • faith and justice towards all nations, and urges the American people to avoid
    • long-term friendly relations or rivalries with any nation.
    • – warned American politicians against foreign affairs, U.S.
    • should avoid foreign affairs because it will undermine the new nation, War of
    • 1812 is an example of foreign affairs
  25. Monroe
    • is a United States policy that was introduced on December 2,
    • 1823, which stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land
    • or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed by the United States
    • of America as acts of aggression requiring US intervention. The Monroe Doctrine
    • asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by
    • European countries, and that the United States would not interfere with
    • existing European colonies or in the internal concerns of European countries.
    • In “As They Said it”, the Unites States citizens believe that it is only when
    • their rights are invaded or seriously menaced that they resent injuries or make
    • preparations for their defense. That was the ultimate thought of the Monroe
    • Doctrine.
  26. American
    • was a mercantilist economic plan based on the "American
    • School" ideas of Alexander Hamilton, consisting of high tariffs to support
    • internal improvements such as road-building, and a national bank to encourage
    • productive enterprise and form a national currency. This program was intended
    • to allow the United States to grow and prosper, by providing a defense against
    • the dumping of cheap foreign products. In “As I said it”, an address was made
    • to the friends of the American System describing how important it is for all to
    • accept it because it benefits everyone. By doing this they can unite the Union.
  27. John
    • was an American columnist and editor who used the term
    • "Manifest Destiny" in 1845 to promote the right for the US to expand west. O'Sullivan was an influential political
    • writer and advocate for the Democratic Party at that time, but he faded from
    • prominence soon thereafter. “Manifest Destiny” was the belief that the United
    • States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the
    • Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean and according to “As they Said it”, was
    • destined to be the great nation of futurity.
  28. Ostend
    • – document written in October of 1854 that described the
    • rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain and implied the
    • U.S. should declare war if Spain refused. According to “As they Said it”,
    • Cuba's annexation had long been a goal of U.S. expansionists, particularly as
    • the U.S. set its sights southward following the admission of California to the
    • Union. However, diplomatically, the country had been content to see the island
    • remain in Spanish hands so long as it did not pass to a stronger power such as
    • the United Kingdom or France. A product of the debates over slavery in the
    • United States, Manifest Destiny, and the Monroe Doctrine, the Ostend Manifesto
    • proposed a shift in foreign policy, justifying the use of force to seize Cuba
    • in the name of national security. While the Ostend Manifesto was never acted
    • upon, American interest in the region would next surface near the end of the
    • nineteenth century in the Spanish–American War, ultimately leading to Cuba's
    • independence.
  29. Funding and Assumption
    • Funding (Internal Improvements)- went to Canals and things that kept the economy moving.
    • Assumption- the federal government will take on the dept of the states and the dept from the wart in an attempt to create a stronger central government, it was proposed by Alexander Hamilton in the 1780s - 1790s [liquor and import taxes].
  30. Tarrif of Abominations
    The goal was to make the products from European Countries more expensive.
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