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  1. What is the main metabolic reaction affecting pH, enzyme?
    • CO2 <--> H+ + HCO3-
    • Carbonic Anhydrase.
  2. What is normal pH, PCO2, HCO3-?
    • pH: 7.4
    • PCO2: 40 mmHg
    • HCO3-: 24.
  3. What causes respiratory acidosis?
    Decreased alveolar ventilation (hypoventilation) -> increase PaCO2.
  4. For every 10mmHg rise in PaCO2 there is a pH change, HCO3-?
    • pH: decreases 0.08
    • HCO3-: increases 1mM/L.
  5. What causes respiratory alkalosis?
  6. For every 10mmHg fall in PaCO2 there is a pH change, HCO#-?
    • pH: increases 0.08
    • HCO3-: decreases 2mM/L.
  7. What causes metabolic acidosis?
    Gain in fixed acid (or loss in bicarb).
  8. What are the three main causes of metabolic acidosis?
    • Increased production of acid (lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis)
    • Bicarb loss (RTA II, diarrhea)
    • Inability to secrete acid (RTA I, acute and chronic renal disease).
  9. What is the expected (decreased) PCO2 in respiratory compensation of metabolic acidosis?
    • Hyperventilation
    • PCO2= 1.5(HCO3-)+8.
  10. What is the expected change in PCO2 (increase) in respiratory compensation of metabolic alkalosis?
    Increase of 0.7mmHg PCO2 per 1mEq/L rise in HCO3-.
  11. What is a normal anion gap?
    10 +/- 2.
  12. What is a mnemonic for anion gap acidosis?
    • M: methanol
    • U: Uremia
    • D: DKA
    • P: Paraldehyde
    • I: Isoniazid/Iron
    • L: Lactic acid
    • E: Ethanol
    • S: Salicylates
  13. What three conditions will not widen the anion gap?
    • Diarrhea
    • RTA I
    • RTA II.
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