1. Organ systems help organisms
    get energy, use energy to run their bodies and move, reproduce, get rid of waste, protect their bodies, and coordinate all the functions of a body.
  2. Organ systems are formed from
    groups of organs working together.
  3. Nerves detect a stimulus in the environment and send a signal to the brain through the
    spinal cord. The brain sends a signal to respond.
  4. The muscular system
    allows movement of body parts. It works with the skeletal system to help you move.
  5. The skeletal system
    is made up of bones, ligaments, and cartilage. It supports the body and protects important organs. It also makes blood cells.
  6. The respiratory system
    gathers oxygen from the environment and gets rid of carbon dioxide from the body. The exchange occurs in the lungs.
  7. The lymphatic system
    returns leaked fluid back to the blood. As a major part of the immune system, it has cells that help get rid of invading bacteria and viruses.
  8. The endocrine system
    makes chemical messages that help to regulate conditions inside the body. They also influence growth and development.
  9. The cardiovascular system
    moves blood through the body. The heart is the pump for this system. Blood flows through blood vessels.
  10. The excretory system
    gets rid of the body's wastes. The urinary system removes wastes from blood. The skin, lungs, and digestive system also remove wastes from the body.
  11. The digestive system
    breaks down food into nutients that can be used by the body. The stomach breaks down food into tiny pieces. Nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine.
  12. Body systems
    work together, share organs, and communicate.
  13. Blood vessels transport
    chemical messages from the endocrine system and cells from the lymphatic and cardiovascular systems.
  14. Cells communicate by
    electrical messages and chemical messages.
  15. Describe electrical messages
    Nerve cells transfer information between the body and the spinal cord and brain. Nerves mass electrical messages from one cell to the next along the line.
  16. Describe chemical messages
    The endocrine system sends chemical messages through the bloodstream to certain cells.
  17. The endocrine system releases
    hormones to prepare the body for action.
  18. In baseball, the eyes (part of the nervous system) see the ball coming and
    send electrical messages to the brain.
  19. The heart of the cardiovascular system pumps quickly to move
    blood from the lungs to the body. The muscles use oxygen from the blood to keep moving.
  20. Define homeostasis
    The maintenance of a constant environment when outside conditions change. Responding to change allows all systems to work properly.
  21. What tells the body what changes to make to maintain homeostasis?
    The electrical messages of the nervous system and the chemical signals of the endocrine system.
  22. What can go wrong with homeostasis?
    • Body cells that do not get enough energy or nutrients cannot work properly.
    • A lack of food harms many systems and may cause disease or death.
    • Toxinss can prevent cells from carrying out life processes.
    • Pathogens break down cells.
    • Problems occur when the body's messages do not work, or are not sent when or where they are needed.
    • Many diseases that affect homeostasis are hereditary.
  23. What happens when the body cannot maintain homeostasis?
    Pathogens can more easily invade the body.
  24. _________ is maintaining stable conditions inside the body.
  25. Which system brings oxygen into the blood and releases carbon dioxide from the body?
  26. The long, thin cells of which system help transmit messages around the body?
  27. The muscular heart pushes what around the body?
  28. Which two systems work together to allow the player to swing the bat?
    Nervous and muscular
  29. If the body temperature goes up, what senses the change and will work to reduce the body temperature to normal?
    The brain
  30. How are the functions of the skeletal and muscular systems related?
    Both help the body to move and they work together in doing so.
  31. What body system recieves information from inside and outside of the body and responds to that information?
    The nervous system
  32. The nervous system
    collects information and responds to it by sending electrical messages. This information may come from outside or inside the body. The brain is the center of the nervous system.
  33. The integumentary system
    is the protective covering of the body. It includes the skin, hair, and nails. As a part of the immune system, the skin acts as a barrier that protects the body from infection.
  34. How is the skin part of the integumentary system and the excretory system?
    The integumentary system is the protective covering of the body. Skin is part of the excretory system because it helps remove wastes from the body.
  35. What are the basic needs of all cells in the body?
    Food, oxygen, and to have their wastes taken away.
  36. Give examples to how a cell's structure relates to it's function.
    • Sperm cells have long tails that are used to move.
    • Nerve cells are long and thin to send messages long distances.
    • Surface skin cells are broad and flat.
  37. What are the main functions of the skeletal system?
    • Supports and protects the body
    • Allows the body to move
    • Stores minerals
    • Produces red blood cells
    • A human's skeleton is inside the body so it is called an endoskeleton.
  38. The Skeletal System
    Bones provide protection to organs. For example, your ribs protect your heart and lungs, your vertebrae protect your spinal cord, and your skull protects your brain.
  39. The Skeletal System
    The hard outer layer of bone, called compact bone, stores important minerals such as calcium. These minerals are necessary for nerves and muscles to work properly.
  40. The Skeletal System
    Bones provide support for your body and make it possible for you to sit or stand upright. If you did not have bones you would be a mass of soft tissue, like a slug, but you would not be able to move.
  41. The Skeletal System
    Blood Cell Production
    At the center of bones is soft tissue called marrow. Red marrow, which makes blood cells, is found mostly in flat bones such as the ribs, pelvis, and skull.
  42. The Skeletal System
    Bones play an important role in movement by providing a place for muscles to attach. Muscles pull on bones to move the body. Without bones, muscles could not do their job of moving the body.
  43. What are the parts of the skeletal system?
    Bones, ligaments, and cartilage.
  44. What is the axial skeleton?
    The skull, vertebrae, and ribs. It supports the body's weight and protects internal organs.
  45. What is the appendicular skeleton?
    The arms, legs, shouders, and pelvis. It allows for most of the body's movement.
  46. What are bones and what do they do?
    Bones are hard organs made of minerals and connective tissue. They have blood vessels that supply nutrients and nerves which signal pain.
  47. What are ligaments and what do they do?
    Ligaments are tough, flexible strands of connective tissue that hold bones together. They allow movement and are found at the end of bones. Some prevent too much movement of bones.
  48. What is cartilage and what does it do?
    Cartilage is a strong, flexible, and smooth connective tissue found at the end of bones. It allows bones to move smoothly across each other.
  49. What are the two kinds of bone tissue?
    • Compact bone is dense and has no visible open spaces. It makes bone rigid and hard. Tiny canals within compact bone contain blood capillaries.
    • Spongy bone has many open spaces. It provides most of the strength and support for a bone. In long bones such as the arm or the leg, an outer layer of compact bone surrounds spongy bone and marrow.
  50. What is the most plentiful mineral in bones?
    Calcium. Minerals such as calcium make bones strong and hard. The are deposited by cells called osteoblasts.
  51. What is collagen?
    Collagen is a protein which makes up most of the connective tissue in bone. The collagen allows bones to be flexible enough to withstand knocks and bumps.
  52. What is marrow and what are the two types?
    • Marrow is a soft tissue found in bones.
    • Red marrow is where platelets and red and white blood cells are produced. It is the center of flat bones such as ribs.
    • Yellow marrow stores fat. It is found at the center of long bones such as the femur.
  53. How do bones grow?
    Long bones lengthen at their ends, in the growth plates. Bone cells called osteoocytes move into the cartilage, hardening it and changing it into bone.
  54. What are growth plates?
    Growth plates are areas of cartilage that continue to make new cells.
  55. How are bones connected?
    Bones are connected to each other at joints by ligaments. Fixed joints, like the ones in the skull, allow little or no movement. Movable joints allow more movement of the bones.
  56. What is a ball-and-socket joint?
    Shoulders and hips are ball-and-socket joints. They are movable joints that allow one of the bones of the joint to rotate in a large circle.
  57. What is a gliding joint?
    Wrists and ankles are gliding joints. They are movable joints that allow much flexibility in many directions.
  58. What are hinge joints?
    Knees and elbows are hinge joints. They are movable joints that allow bones to move back anf forth like a door.
  59. What are sprains and how are they caused?
    A sprain is an injury to a ligament from stretching a joint too far. The tissues in a sprained ligamen tcan tear and the joint becomes swollen and painful to move.
  60. What is osteoporosis?
    Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bone tissue to become thin. The bones become weak and break more easily. Having much calcium in your diet can help prevent this disease.
  61. What is arthritis?
    Arthritis is a disease that causes joints to swell, stiffen, and become painful. It may also cause the joint to become misshapen. It can be very diffiult to move an arthritis-infected joint.
  62. What are the main functions of the muscular system?
    • Pumps blood through your body
    • Enables you to breath
    • Holds you upright
    • Allows you to move
  63. Information on muscles
    • The muscular system is made mostly of the muscles that allow your body to move and be flexible
    • Muscles not part of the muscular system move materials inside your body
    • Muscle tissue is made up of muscle cells.
    • Muscle cells contain special proteins that allow them to shorten and lengthen
  64. What are muscles?
    Muscle is the tissue that contracts and relaxes, making movement possible.
  65. What are the three types of muscles?
    Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Each are muscle tissues.
  66. Classify each type of muscle as voluntary or involuntary.
    • Skeletal muscle is voluntary muscle.
    • Smooth and cardiac muscle is involuntary muscle.
  67. Where is smooth muscle found and what does it do?
    Smooth muscle is found in internal organs and blood vessels. It helps move materials through the body. Smooth muscle movement in your digestive system helps move food through your intestines.
  68. What is cardiac muscle?
    • Cardiac muscle is the tissue that makes up the heart.
    • Your heart never gets tired like your skeletal muscle.
    • Cardiac muscle cells are able to contract and relax tirelessly. They never stop moving your whole life.
    • In order to supply lots of energy to the cells, cardiac muscle cells contain many mitochondria.
    • The contractions of cardiac muscle push blood out of the heart and pump it around the body.
  69. What is skeletal muscle?
    Skeletal muscle is attached to your bones and allows you to move. Most skeletal muscles work in pairs around joints. One muscle, the flexor, bends a joint. The other, the extensor, straightens the joint. When one muscle contracts, the other relaxes to allow movement of the body part.
  70. What is a strain?
    A strain is a muscle injury in which a muscle is overstretched or torn. This can happen when muscles have not been stretched properly or when they are overworked. Strains cause the muscle to swell and can be painful. Strains and tears need rest to heal.
  71. What is muscular dystrophy?
    Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease that causes skeletal muscle to become weaker over time. It affects how muscle proteins form.
  72. What is tendinitis?
    Tendinitis is when when tendons become inflamed or torn when muscles are overused. It needs rest to heal and may be treated with medicines that reduce swelling.
  73. What are some benefits of excersize?
    Excersize benefits the muscular system by increasing strength, endurance, and flexibility. It also keeps your heart, blood vessels, lungs, and bones healthy. Excersize also reduces stress, helps you sleep well, and makes you feel good.
  74. What are bones, cartilage, and the ligaments that hold bones together?
    The skeletal system
  75. What is a type of tough, flexible connective tissue that holds bones together?
  76. What are groups of muscles that allow you to move and that move materials inside your body?
    The muscular system
  77. What is the place where two or more bones connect?
  78. What are tough strands of tissue that connect muscles to bones?
  79. What are the three main parts of the skeletal system?
    Bones cartilage and ligaments.
  80. The shoulder is an example of what kind of joint?
    Ball and socket
  81. Aerobic excersizes improve muscle
  82. Anaerobic excersizes improve muscle
  83. What bone disease is caused by a lack of calcium in the diet?
  84. What is the circulatory system?
    The term circulatory system describes both the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. Both work closely together to move fluids around your body and protect it from disease. Your moving blood helps to keep all parts of your body warm.
  85. What is the cardiovascular system and what does it do?
    Your heart, blood, and blood vessels make up your cardiovascular system, which transports blood arounnd your body. The cardiovascular system is a closed circulatory system meaning that the blood is carried in vessels that form a closed loop.
  86. Describe blood.
    Blood is the fluid that carries gases, nutrients, and wastes through the body. The blood maintains homeostasis by transporting hormones, nutrients, and oxygen to cells and by carrying wastes away from cells.
  87. What is the lymphatic system?
    The lymphatic system is a group of organs and tissues that collect lymph and return it to the blood. The lymphatic system is an open circulatory system and lymph can move in and out of the vessels. The lymphatic system is also part of the body's defenses against disease. Certain lymph vessels in the abdomen move from the intestine and into the blood.
  88. What is lymph?
    Lymph is the fluid that leaks from blood. Lymph capillaries absorb the lymph and bring it to larger lymph vessels. It is returned to the cardiovascular system when it drains into blood vessels at the ase of the neck.
  89. What are capillaries?
    Capillaries are tiny blood vessels. Every time your heart pumps a little fluid is forced out of them. Most of the fluid is reabsorbed by the capillaries, and the remaining fluid is collected by lymph capillaries.
  90. What are lymph capillaries?
    Lymph capillaries absorb fluid, particles such as dead cells, and pathogens from around body cells. The lymph capillaries carry the lymph to larger lymph vessels.
  91. Describe white blood cells.
    The lymphatic system is where white blood cells mature. SOme of them stay in the lymphatic system where they attack invading pathogens.
  92. What are lymph nodes?
    Lymph nodes are small, bean shaped organs that remove pathogens and dead cells from lymph. White blood cells are found in them.
  93. What are lymph vessels?
    Lymph vessels are the thin walled vessels of the lymphatic system. They carry lymph back to lymph nodes.
  94. What is bone marrow?
    Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside of bones where blood cells are produced.
  95. What are tonsils?
    Tonsils are small lymphatic organs at the back of the throat and tongue. An infection of the tonsils is called tonsilitis. When tonsils get infected, they may become swollen.
  96. What is the thymus?
    The thymus is an organ in the chest. Some white blood cells made the bone marrow finish developing in the thymus.
  97. What is the spleen?
    The spleen is the largest lymphatic organ. It stores white blood cells and also allows them to mature.
  98. What are some disorders of the lymphatic system?
    • Lymphoma is a type of cancer that often begins in a lymph node. It can cause a swelling in the node called a tumor.
    • Lymphadema is a swelling of body tissues caused by a blockage or injury to lymph vessels.
  99. What is the cardiovascular system and what does it do?
    The cardiovascular system is the organ system that carries nutrients, gases, and hormones to body cells and waste products from body cells. It also helps keep the different parts of your body at an even temperature. It is made up of your heart, blood vessels, and blood.
  100. What is your heart?
    The heart is the pump that sends blood around your body. When heart muscle contrracts, it squeezes the blood inside the heart. This squeezing creates a pressure that pushes blood through the body.
  101. What are the sides of the heart?
    The right side of the heart pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. The left side pumps oxygen-rich bood to the body.
  102. What are the upper and lower chambers of the heart?
    The upper chambers are atriums. The lower chamber are ventricles.
  103. What are valves?
    Blood enters the atria and is pumped down to the ventricles. Flaplike structures called valves are located between the artria and the ventricles where large vessels are attached to the heart. As blood move through the heart, the valves close to prevent blood from going backwards. This closing creates the sound of a beating heart.
  104. What is blood and what does it do?
    Blood is a connective tissue that is part of the cardiovascular system. It serves as a transport system, providing supplies for cells, carrying chemical messages, and removing wastes so cells can maintain homeostasis.
  105. What are arteries?
    An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Arteries have thick walls with a layer of smooth muscle. Nutrients, oxygen, and other substances must leave the blood to get to your body's cells. CO2 and other wastes leave body cells and are carried away by blood.
  106. What is blood pressure?
    Each of your heartbeats pumps blood into your arteries at high pressure, which is your blood pressure. This pressure pushes blood through the arteries. Artery walls are strong and they stretch to withstand the pressure.
  107. What are capillaries?
    A capillary is a tiny blood vessel that allows these exchanges between body cells and the blood The gas exchange can take place because capillary walls are only one cell thick.
  108. What are veins?
    A vein is a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart. Blood in veins is not under as much pressure as blood in arteries is. Valves in the veins keep the blood from flowing backwards. The contraction of skeletal muscles around veins can help blood move in the veins.
  109. What are blood vessels?
    Blood travels throughout your body in tubes called blood vessels. The three types of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins.
  110. What do arteries, capillaries, and veins do?
    • Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from heart.
    • Capillaries deliver oxygen-rich blood to body cells and take oxygen-poor blood away from cells.
    • Veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.
  111. What is blood made of?
    An adult human body has about 5 liters of blood. Blood is made up of plasma, platelets, and red and white blood cells. Blood is a tissue because it is made of at least two different cell types.
  112. What is plasma?
    The fluid part of the blood is called plasma. Plasma is a mixture of water, minerals, nutrients, sugars, proteins, and other substances. The fluid also carries waste. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are fond in plasma.
  113. What are platelets?
    Platelets are tiny pieces of larger cells found in bone marrow. They last only 5-10 days. As soon as bleeding starts, platelets begin to clump together in the cut area. They form a plug that helps reduce blood loss. Platelets also release chemicals that react with proteins in plasma. The reaction causes tiny fibers to form. The fibers help create a blood clot.
  114. What are white blood cells?
    White blood cells keep you healthy by fighting pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. Some white blood cells squeeze out of blood vessels to search for pathogens. Once they find one they destroy it. Other white blood cells form antibodies. Antibodies are chemicals that identify pathogens. White blood cells also keep you healthy by destroying body cells that have died or been damaged.
  115. What are red blood cells?
    Most blood cells are red blood cells. Red blood cells are disk-shaped cells that do not have a nucleus. The bring oxygen to every cell in your body. Cells need oxygen to carry out every function. Each red blood cell has hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-carrying protein; it clings to the oxygen molecules you inhale. Red blood cells can then transport oxygen to cells in every part of the body.
  116. How does blood move through the body?
    Blood is pumped from the right side of the heart to the lungs. From the lungs it returns to the left side of the heart. The blood is then pumped from the left side of the heart to the body. It flows to the tiny capillaries around the body before returning to the right side of the heart.
  117. How does blood circulate?
    Blood moves in two loops or circuits around the body. The flow of blood between the heart and the lungs is called the pulmonary circulation. The circulation of blood between the heart and the rest of the body is called systematic circulation.
  118. How does circulation help maintain body temperature?
    When the brain senses that body temperature is rising, it signals blood vessels in the skin to widen. As the vessels get wider, heat from the blood is transferred to the air around the skin. When the brain senses the body temoerature is getting too low, it signals the blood vessels near the skin to get narrower. This allows the blood to stay close to internal organs to keep them warm.
  119. How can you get cardiovascular disease?
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Cardiovascular disease can by caused by smoking, poor diet, stress, physical inactivity, or in some causes, heredity.
  120. What is atheroscierosis?
    Atheroscierosis is a hardening of the artery walls caused by the buildup of cholesterol and other lipids. The buildup causes blood vessels to become narrower and less elastic. Blood cannot flow easily through a narrowed artery. When an artery supplying blood to the heart becomes blocked, oxygen cannot reach the heart muscle and the person may have a heart attack.
  121. What is hypertension?
    Hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure. Atheroscierosis may be caused in part by hypertension. The higher a person's blood pressure, the greater their risk of developing cardiovascular problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. Hypertension that is not treated can also cause kidney damage and shortened life expectency.
  122. How does a heart attack happen?
    When an artery that supplies blood to the heart becomes blocked, the heart muscle tissue that depends on that blood supply does not get oxygen. Cells and tissues that do not get oxygen become damaged and can die. If enough heart muscle cells are damaged the heart may stop beating.
  123. What is a stroke?
    When a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts and that part of the brain receives no oxygen. Brain damage that occurs during a stroke can affect many parts of the body.
  124. What are the functions of the respiratory system?
    The respiatory system is the group of organs that takes in oxygen and gets rid of CO2. Respiration or breathing is the transport of oxygen from outside the body to cells and tissues and the transport of CO2 and wastes away from the cells and to the environment.
  125. What happens when you inhale?
    Oxygen in the air moves into the blood from the lungs. The oxygen-rich blood flowing away from the lungs is carried to all the cellsin the body.Oxygen leaves the capillaries and enters the body cells. Inside each cell, oxygen is used for cellular respiration. The energy that is stored in food molecules is released.
  126. What happens when you exhale?
    When you exhale, CO2 is released from the body. CO2 moves from body cells and into capillaries where it is carried in the blood all the way to the lungs. the CO2 moves out of the lung capillaries and into the lungs where it is exhaled.
  127. What are the parts of the respiratory system?
    Breathing is made possible by your respiratory system. Air enters into your respiratory sysem through your nose or mouth when you breath in. From there, the air moves through a series of tubes to get to your lungs.
  128. What happens in the nose, pharynx and larynx?
    Air enters your respiratory system through your nose and mouth. From the nose, air flows into the pharynx or throat. The pharynx brances into two tubes. The esophagus leads to the stomach. The larynx leads to the lungs. The larynx is the part of the throat that holds the vocal chords. When air passes across the vocal chords, they vibrate making noise.
  129. What are alveoli?
    In the lungs, the bronchioles lead to tiny sacs called alveoli. Alveoli are surrounded by blood vessels. Gases in the air move across the thin walls of the alveoli and blood vessels. As you breathe, air is sucked into and forced out of alveoli.
  130. How is breathing carried out?
    Breathing is carried out by the diaphragm and rib muscles. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle below the lungs. As you inhale, the diaphragm contracts and moves down. The volume of the chest increases. As a result, a vaccuum is created and air is sucked in. Exhaling reverses the process.
  131. What is the trachea?
    The larynx is connect to a long to a long tube called the trachea, or windpipe. Air flows from the larynx through the trachea to the lungs.The trachea splits into two branches called bronchi. One bronchi connects to each lung. Each bronchus branches into smaller tubes called bronchioles.
  132. What are some disorders of the respiratory system?
    Some are asthma, pneumonia, emphysema, and lung cancer. Some respiratory problems such as emphysema and lung cancer are strongly linked to cigarette smoke. Other respiratory disorders such as pneumonia are caused by pathogens and some genetic disorders.
  133. What is asthma?
    Asthma is a condition in which the airways are narrowed due to inflamation of the bronchi. During an asthma attack, the muscles in the bronchi tighten and the airways become inflamed. This reduces the amount of air that can get in and out of the lungs.
  134. What is pneumonia?
    Pneumonia is an inflamation of the lungs that is usually caused by bacteria or viruses. Inflamed alveoli may fill with fluid. If the alveoli are filled with too much fluid, then the person cannot take in enough oxygen and they may suffocate.
  135. What is emphasema?
    Emphasema occurs when the alveoli have become damaged. As a result, oxygen cannot pass or cross into the blood as well as it could in a normal alveolus. People who have emphasema have trouble getting the oxygen they need and removing CO2 from their lungs. This condition is often linked to long-term use of tobacco.
  136. The lymph organs found in your throat are called
  137. The two gases that the blood carries around the body are
    oxygen and CO2
  138. Oxygen enters the blood and CO2 leaves the blood in the
    alveoli of the lungs.
  139. What is blood?
    A connective tissue in the cardiovascular system that transports chemical messages among other things.
  140. What is lymph?
    Leaked fluid from the lymphatic system.
  141. What is alveoli?
    The sacs that the bronchioles lead to in the lungs.
  142. What are the structures of the lymphatic system?
    Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, bone marrow, tonsils, thymus, and spleen.
  143. What are the structures of the cardiovascular system?
    Heart, blood, blood vessels, arteries, capillaries, and veins.
  144. What are the structures of the respiratory system?
    Pharynx, larynx, alveoli, trachea, and bronchi.
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