1. raphe nuclei correspond to
    serotogenic input in hippocampal formation
  2. locus coeruleus corresponds to
    noradrenergic input
  3. ventral tegmental area corresponds to
    dopaminergic input
  4. medial septum corresponds to
    acetylcholinergic input in hippocampal formation
  5. case of AM
    • semantic dementia- wernicke's aphasia
    • speech lacks semantic content, misues objects
  6. double dissociations in semantic and episodic memory that there is amnesia for anterograde and retrograde episodic memories, but a perserved.....
    • semantic memory
    • case of KC
  7. memory hierarchy
    remember when-
    know that-
    how to-
  8. implicit learning is not necessary in the ______, memories can be made in cortical and subcortical areas including the _______
    hippocampus/amygdala, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum
  9. what is the dependent variable in the incomplete pictures test degraded drawings
    level at which object is identified at first exposure level one hour later
  10. what abilities are preserved in anterograde amnesia?
    • implicit learning based on automatic activation
    • classical conditioning
    • repetition priming tasks (word fragment completeion, biased homophone spelling)
  11. what are the deficits in anterograde amnesia?
    forming explicit memories of all episodic memories and learning episodes
  12. declarative/nondeclarative memory
    • declarative: conscious recall explicit
    • nondeclarative: implicit
  13. case of N.A
    • medial diencephalic amnesia
    • medial dorsal nuclei of the thalamus
    • pure retrograde
    • mammilary bodies
  14. anterograde amnesia is a _____ problem, with ______ _______ damage. retrograde amnesia is a _____ problem, with _______ damage and neural degeneration in association areas
    • consolidation, bilateral hippocampal
    • retrieval, cortical/diencephalic
  15. NMDA receptors require.....
    simultaneous input from multiple presynaptic neurons at calcium channels normaly blocked by magnesium
  16. synapses are strengthened by protein _____ at ____ receptors
  17. KC had amnesia for....
    personal experiences. he does well using semantic memory but cannot travel into past or future
  18. cerebral ischemia is
    • interruption of blood supply to brain
    • in case of RB, had brain damage to pyrimidal cell layer
  19. korkasoffs syndrome dispalys damage to the ______
    mediodorsal nuclei of thalamus (medial diencephalic amnesia)
  20. ephrins are
    guidance molecules in signal gradience
  21. two interesecting signal gradients in topographic gradient hypothesis
    • anterior posterior
    • medial lateral
  22. synaptogenesis depends on presence of ______ which provide ______
    astroccytes , cholesterol
  23. neurotrophins
    • life preserving chemicals, growth and survival, axon guidance molecules, synaptoenesis
  24. fasciculation
    tendency of developing axons to grow along path established by pioneer growth cones
  25. neurual proliferation occurs mostly in the
    ventricular zone
  26. two organizer areas in neural tube
    floor plate/roof plate
  27. radian migration v. tangential miration
    • radial- directly from ventricular zone to outer tube wall
    • tangential- right angle to radial migration
  28. two methods of migration?
    • 1) somal transocation - extension grows
    • 2) glia mediated- radial glia cells
  29. neural crest deelops into
  30. when radial glia cell axons synapse in MGN v. LGN,
    auditory cortex organizes retinotopically
  31. how does early music training change the brain
    • expands auditory cortex area
    • development of absolute pitch
    • piano playing increases motor tract myelination
  32. disruptive effects of early monocular deprivation on development of
    ocular dominance columns in primary visula cortex
  33. deep brain stimulation works on the
    subthalamic nucleus
  34. parkinson's is most severe in the
    substantia nigra of basal ganglia
  35. the protein huntingtin normally codes for
    protcting neurons from apoptosis
  36. recovery of function after damage most likely
    • -young
    • -small lesions
    • -cognitive reserve
  37. which chemicals reduce damage by blocking neurodegeneration
    • apoptosis inhibitor protein
    • nerve growht factor
    • estrogens
  38. why do PNS neurons regenerate but CNS do not?
    environment of PNS- shwann cells- produce neurotrophic factors and cell adhesion molecules

    CNS-oligodendroglia- myelinate CNS axons/block regeneration
  39. collateral sprouting
    axon degenerates, healthy axons synapse at vacatd sites
  40. circadian clock is located in the
  41. which receptors activate the retinohypothalamic tracts?
    retinal ganglion cells
  42. the peribrachial area of pons in the source of
    acetylcholine in REM
  43. narcolepsy: the activity in the _____ nucleus is released from ________
  44. the magnocellullar nucleus
    • -reticular formation
    • -controls muscle relaxation during REM sleep
    • -active in narcolepsy attacks
  45. orexin stimulates the ______ and effects _____
    • basal forebrain/RAS
    • acetylcholine
  46. adenosine inhibits ______ ; more adenosine=more _____
    hypocretin/orexin; VLPA anterior hypothalamus
  47. benzodiazepines increase ______ and inhibit ______
  48. trycyclics increase _____ and supress ______
    norepinephrine, epinephrin, dopamine/REM sleep
  49. kindling
    • permanent produced by distrbuted stimulation of brain in rats
    • progressive developement and intensification
  50. alzheimers is more prevalent in the ___ lobe
    medial temporal (includes amygdala, cognitive)- decline in acetylcholine
  51. multiple trace v. standard consolidation
    standard: hippocampus, etc. store memories during the period immediately after learning and then are transferred

    multiple: structures store memories for as long as tehy exist
  52. four neural structures w/memory
    • 1) hippocampus: spatial memory
    • 2) perirhinal cortex: object memory
    • 3) mediodorsal nucleus: memory/kosakoffs
    • 4) basal forebrain: alzheimers
    • 5) inferotremporal cortex: sensory memory/visual patterns
    • 6) amygdala: emotional events
    • 7) prefrontal cortex- temporal order/working memory
    • 8) cerebellum- motor tasks
    • striatum-habits
  53. calcium channels associated with NMDA
    only allow calcium ions to enter if neuron is already depolarized when glutamate binds to it
  54. calcium activates
    protein kinases in cytoplasm, which blocks induction of LTP
  55. autism
    • basal ganglia abnormalities
    • shortened brain stem
    • shorter nuclei within hearing related nuclei
    • brain stem and cerebellum develop earlier
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